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A Mediation Analysis of Motivational, Reduction, and Usual Care Interventions for Smokers Who Are Not Ready to Quit

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      Most cited references 22

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      The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychology research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations

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        A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. A U.S. Public Health Service report.

          (2008)
        To summarize the U.S. Public Health Service guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update, which provides recommendations for clinical interventions and system changes to promote the treatment of tobacco dependence. An independent panel of 24 scientists and clinicians selected by the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality on behalf of the U.S. Public Health Service. A consortium of eight governmental and nonprofit organizations sponsored the update. Approximately 8700 English-language, peer-reviewed articles and abstracts, published between 1975 and 2007, were reviewed for data that addressed assessment and treatment of tobacco dependence. This literature served as the basis for more than 35 meta-analyses. Two panel meetings and numerous conference calls and staff meetings were held to evaluate meta-analyses and relevant literature, to synthesize the results, and to develop recommendations. The updated guideline was then externally reviewed by more than 90 experts, made available for public comment, and revised. This evidence-based, updated guideline provides specific recommendations regarding brief and intensive tobacco-cessation interventions as well as system-level changes designed to promote the assessment and treatment of tobacco use. Brief clinical approaches for patients willing and unwilling to quit are described.
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          Predictors of attempts to stop smoking and their success in adult general population samples: a systematic review.

          To identify the predictors of attempts to stop smoking and the predictors of quit attempt success in adult general population samples. We performed an electronic search of EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register for articles that examined, in prospective adult general population samples, predictors of quit attempts and the success of quit attempts. Experts were contacted for knowledge of other relevant studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and results were extracted independently by two researchers. There was considerable methodological heterogeneity between studies. Motivational factors dominated the prediction of quit attempts, whereas only cigarette dependence consistently predicted success after an attempt had been made. Social grade also appeared to predict success but was only examined in two studies. None of the other socio-demographic factors consistently predicted making a quit attempt or success. Population-level studies from a number of countries show that past quit attempts and measures of motivation to stop are highly predictive of quit attempts, whereas only measures of dependence are consistently predictive of success of those attempts. Gender, age and marital status and educational level are not related consistently to quit attempts or quit success across countries. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;
            [2 ] Department of Psychological Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;
            [3 ] Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;
            [4 ] Department of Biostatistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;
            [5 ] Department of Family Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
            Journal
            Nicotine & Tobacco Research
            Oxford University Press (OUP)
            1462-2203
            1469-994X
            August 2017
            August 01 2017
            February 09 2017
            August 2017
            August 01 2017
            February 09 2017
            : 19
            : 8
            : 916-921
            10.1093/ntr/ntx025
            © 2017

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