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      Polyphyllin VI induces apoptosis and autophagy in human osteosarcoma cells by modulation of ROS/JNK activation

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          Polyphyllin VI, a main active saponin isolated from traditional medicinal plant Paris polyphylla, has exhibited antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Polyphyllin VI against human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) and the underlying molecular mechanisms.


          The U2OS cell lines were used to determine the antiproliferative effect of Polyphyllin VI by CCK8 assay. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. The Polyphyllin VI-induced apoptosis was determined by Annexin V-APC/7-AAD apoptosis detection kit and JC-1 staining. Meanwhile, the autophagy was determined by acridine orange staining. The apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were monitored by Western blot assay. Subsequently, intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and the activation of ROS/JNK pathway were detected.


          Polyphyllin VI could potently inhibit cell proliferation by causing G2/M phase arrest. Polyphyllin VI induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with the upregulation of proapoptotic proteins Bax and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, and downregulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in U2OS cells. Concomitantly, Polyphyllin VI provoked autophagy with the upregulation of critical Atg proteins and accumulation of LC3B-II. Intracellular H 2O 2 production was triggered upon exposure to Polyphyllin VI, which could be blocked by ROS scavenger. Polyphyllin VI dramatically promoted JNK phosphorylation, whereas it decreased the levels of phospho-p38 and ERK.


          Our results reveal that Polyphyllin VI may effectively induce apoptosis and autophagy to suppress cell growth via ROS/JNK activation in U2OS cells, suggesting that Polyphyllin VI is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of osteosarcomas.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Macroautophagy is mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which encloses a portion of cytoplasm for delivery to the lysosome. Autophagosome formation is dynamically regulated by starvation and other stresses and involves complicated membrane reorganization. Since the discovery of yeast Atg-related proteins, autophagosome formation has been dissected at the molecular level. In this review we describe the molecular mechanism of autophagosome formation with particular focus on the function of Atg proteins and the long-standing discussion regarding the origin of the autophagosome membrane.
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            Programmed cell death pathways in cancer: a review of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis.

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            Programmed cell death (PCD), referring to apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis, is proposed to be death of a cell in any pathological format, when mediated by an intracellular program. These three forms of PCD may jointly decide the fate of cells of malignant neoplasms; apoptosis and programmed necrosis invariably contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play either pro-survival or pro-death roles. Recent bulk of accumulating evidence has contributed to a wealth of knowledge facilitating better understanding of cancer initiation and progression with the three distinctive types of cell death. To be able to decipher PCD signalling pathways may aid development of new targeted anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. Thus in this review, we present a brief outline of apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis pathways and apoptosis-related microRNA regulation, in cancer. Taken together, understanding PCD and the complex interplay between apoptosis, autophagy and programmed necrosis may ultimately allow scientists and clinicians to harness the three types of PCD for discovery of further novel drug targets, in the future cancer treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Life and death partners: apoptosis, autophagy and the cross-talk between them.

              It is not surprising that the demise of a cell is a complex well-controlled process. Apoptosis, the first genetically programmed death process identified, has been extensively studied and its contribution to the pathogenesis of disease well documented. Yet, apoptosis does not function alone to determine a cell's fate. More recently, autophagy, a process in which de novo-formed membrane-enclosed vesicles engulf and consume cellular components, has been shown to engage in a complex interplay with apoptosis. In some cellular settings, it can serve as a cell survival pathway, suppressing apoptosis, and in others, it can lead to death itself, either in collaboration with apoptosis or as a back-up mechanism when the former is defective. The molecular regulators of both pathways are inter-connected; numerous death stimuli are capable of activating either pathway, and both pathways share several genes that are critical for their respective execution. The cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy is therefore quite complex, and sometimes contradictory, but surely critical to the overall fate of the cell. Furthermore, the cross-talk is a key factor in the outcome of death-related pathologies such as cancer, its development and treatment.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                28 August 2019
                : 13
                : 3091-3103
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong-Liang Yuan; Yue DuDepartment of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Jianshe East Road 1, Zhengzhou, Henan450052, People’s Republic of ChinaTel/fax +86 03 716 629 5651Email yylcpu@126.com; fccduy@zzu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Yuan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 43, Pages: 13
                Original Research


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