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      Pathotyping bla CTX-M Escherichia coli from Nigeria

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          Escherichia coli have become the enterobacteriaceae species most affected by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in view of the emergence of CTX-M-type ESBLs. These CTX-M-positive E. coli have been reported in numerous regions worldwide. Virulence determinants of already reported CTX-M-positive E. coli were investigated.


          To gain insights into the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we assessed serogroup, susceptibility pattern and diversity of virulence profiles within a collection of nine blaCTX-M-positive E. coli strains and their virulent determinant using miniaturized DNA microarray techniques. The nine ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were from eight male and one female patient(s) selected for study based on previous work. Virulence potential was inferred by detection of 63 virulence factor (VF) genes.


          Four (44.4%) of the 9 E. coli isolates exhibited the same set of core characteristics: serotype O8:Hnt, while all were positive for OXA-1, ciprofloxacin resistance. Five of the isolates exhibited highly similar (91% to 100%) VF profiles.


          The findings describe a broadly disseminated, blaCTX-M-positive and virulent E. coli serogroup with highly homogeneous virulence genotypes, suggesting recent emergence in this zone. Understanding how this clone has emerged and successfully disseminated within the hospital and community, including across national boundaries, should be a public health priority.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Emergence of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in the community.

          Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) such as SHV and TEM types, have been established since the 1980s as a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Appropriate infection control practices have largely prevented the dissemination of these bacteria within many hospitals, although outbreaks have been reported. However, during the late 1990s and 2000s, Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) producing novel ESBLs, the CTX-M enzymes, have been identified predominantly from the community as a cause of urinary tract infections. Resistance to other classes of antibiotics, especially the fluoroquinolones, is often associated with ESBL-producing organisms. Many clinical laboratories are still not aware of the importance of screening for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae originating from the community. A heightened awareness of these organisms by clinicians and enhanced testing by laboratories, including molecular surveillance studies, is required to reduce treatment failures, to limit their introduction into hospitals and to prevent the spread of these emerging pathogens within the community.
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            Detection in Escherichia coli of the genes encoding the major virulence factors, the genes defining the O157:H7 serotype, and components of the type 2 Shiga toxin family by multiplex PCR.

            Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been associated with outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. Most clinical signs of disease arise as a consequence of the production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1), Stx2 or combinations of these toxins. Other major virulence factors include enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC hlyA), and intimin, the product of the eaeA gene that is involved in the attaching and effacing adherence phenotype. In this study, a series of multiplex-PCR assays were developed to detect the eight most-important E. coli genes associated with virulence, two that define the serotype and therefore the identity of the organism, and a built-in gene detection control. Those genes detected were stx(1), stx(2), stx(2c), stx(2d), stx(2e), stx(2f), EHEC hlyA, and eaeA, as well as rfbE, which encodes the E. coli O157 serotype; fliC, which encodes the E. coli flagellum H7 serotype; and the E. coli 16S rRNA, which was included as an internal control. A total of 129 E. coli strains, including 81 that were O157:H7, 10 that were O157:non-H7, and 38 that were non-O157 isolates, were investigated. Among the 129 samples, 101 (78.3%) were stx positive, while 28 (21.7%) were lacked stx. Of these 129 isolates, 92 (71.3%) were EHEC hlyA positive and 96 (74.4%) were eaeA positive. All STEC strains were identified by this procedure. In addition, all Stx2 subtypes, which had been initially identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, were identified by this method. A particular strength of the assay was the identification of these 11 genes without the need to use restriction enzyme digestion. The proposed method is a simple, reliable, and rapid procedure that can detect the major virulence factors of E. coli while differentiating O157:H7 from non-O157 isolates.
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              Molecular characterization of plasmids encoding CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases from Escherichia coli strains in the United Kingdom.

              The UK, like other countries worldwide, has a growing problem with CTX-M beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. Five major clonally related strains have been identified among CTX-M-15 producers. We characterize here the plasmids from clonal strains A and D. Plasmids were extracted and transformed into E. coli DH5alpha; conjugative mating was attempted on agar. MICs were determined by agar dilution. beta-Lactamases were typed by isoelectric focusing; antibiotic resistance genes and integrons were identified by PCR and sequenced. Plasmid incompatibility groups were determined by replicon PCR. bla(CTX-M-15) was carried by a 150 kb plasmid in strain A and a 70 kb plasmid in strain D. Conjugative transfer of cefotaxime resistance was only achieved from strain D; plasmids from both strains were transferred by transformation. The plasmid from strain A additionally carried bla(TEM-1) (variably), bla(OXA-1), aac(6')-Ib-cr and tet(A), as well as a class 1 integron with the gene cassettes aadA5 and dfr(17); the plasmid from strain D carried bla(TEM-1) consistently, also bla(OXA-1), aac(6')-Ib-cr, aac3-IIa and tet(A). Both plasmids belonged to incompatibility group FII. bla(CTX-M-15) was plasmid-mediated in both strains A and D and was linked to other antibiotic resistance genes including aac(6')-Ib-cr, which encodes an acetyltransferase, not previously found in Europe, acting on both aminoglycosides and some fluoroquinolones. Although the plasmids from the two strains differed in size, both were related and conferred similar multi-drug resistance phenotypes, suggesting that they may share a similar genetic scaffold. Both shared features with plasmids encoding CTX-M-15 beta-lactamases in E. coli from Canada and India.

                Author and article information

                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                1 June 2013
                : 3
                : 2
                : 120-125
                [ 1 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, P.M.B. 4400, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria
                [ 2 ] Department of Bacteriology and Food Safety, Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Woodham Lane, New Haw, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK
                [ 3 ] Institut für Mikrobiologie und Tierseuchen, Freie Universität Berlin, Philippstrasse 13, 10115, Berlin, Germany
                [ 4 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
                [ 5 ] Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
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