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      An ER surface retrieval pathway safeguards the import of mitochondrial membrane proteins in yeast

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          Abstract

          The majority of organellar proteins are translated on cytosolic ribosomes and must be sorted correctly to function. Targeting routes have been identified for organelles such as peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, little is known about the initial steps of targeting of mitochondrial proteins. In this study, we used a genome-wide screen in yeast and identified factors critical for the intracellular sorting of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein Oxa1. The screen uncovered an unexpected path, termed ER-SURF, for targeting of mitochondrial membrane proteins. This pathway retrieves mitochondrial proteins from the ER surface and reroutes them to mitochondria with the aid of the ER-localized chaperone Djp1. Hence, cells use the expanse of the ER surfaces as a fail-safe to maximize productive mitochondrial protein targeting.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Global analysis of protein expression in yeast.

          The availability of complete genomic sequences and technologies that allow comprehensive analysis of global expression profiles of messenger RNA have greatly expanded our ability to monitor the internal state of a cell. Yet biological systems ultimately need to be explained in terms of the activity, regulation and modification of proteins--and the ubiquitous occurrence of post-transcriptional regulation makes mRNA an imperfect proxy for such information. To facilitate global protein analyses, we have created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fusion library where each open reading frame is tagged with a high-affinity epitope and expressed from its natural chromosomal location. Through immunodetection of the common tag, we obtain a census of proteins expressed during log-phase growth and measurements of their absolute levels. We find that about 80% of the proteome is expressed during normal growth conditions, and, using additional sequence information, we systematically identify misannotated genes. The abundance of proteins ranges from fewer than 50 to more than 10(6) molecules per cell. Many of these molecules, including essential proteins and most transcription factors, are present at levels that are not readily detectable by other proteomic techniques nor predictable by mRNA levels or codon bias measurements.
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            A versatile toolbox for PCR-based tagging of yeast genes: new fluorescent proteins, more markers and promoter substitution cassettes.

            Tagging of genes by chromosomal integration of PCR amplified cassettes is a widely used and fast method to label proteins in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This strategy directs the amplified tags to the desired chromosomal loci due to flanking homologous sequences provided by the PCR-primers, thus enabling the selective introduction of any sequence at any place of a gene, e.g. for the generation of C-terminal tagged genes or for the exchange of the promoter and N-terminal tagging of a gene. To make this method most powerful we constructed a series of 76 novel cassettes, containing a broad variety of C-terminal epitope tags as well as nine different promoter substitutions in combination with N-terminal tags. Furthermore, new selection markers have been introduced. The tags include the so far brightest and most yeast-optimized version of the red fluorescent protein, called RedStar2, as well as all other commonly used fluorescent proteins and tags used for the detection and purification of proteins and protein complexes. Using the provided cassettes for N- and C-terminal gene tagging or for deletion of any given gene, a set of only four primers is required, which makes this method very cost-effective and reproducible. This new toolbox should help to speed up the analysis of gene function in yeast, on the level of single genes, as well as in systematic approaches. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Importing mitochondrial proteins: machineries and mechanisms.

              Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and must be imported across one or both mitochondrial membranes. There is an amazingly versatile set of machineries and mechanisms, and at least four different pathways, for the importing and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins. The translocases that catalyze these processes are highly dynamic machines driven by the membrane potential, ATP, or redox reactions, and they cooperate with molecular chaperones and assembly complexes to direct mitochondrial proteins to their correct destinations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the importing and sorting of mitochondrial proteins and their contributions to mitochondrial biogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                September 13 2018
                September 14 2018
                September 13 2018
                September 14 2018
                : 361
                : 6407
                : 1118-1122
                10.1126/science.aar8174
                © 2018

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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