Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is still a major cause of failure of retinal detachment surgery. Despite a dramatic increase in our pathobiologic knowledge of PVR during the last 10 years, little of this information has been used to modify the surgical management of the disease, and, thus, the anatomic and functional results are still unsatisfactory. Collaborative research involving clinicians and basic researchers must be encouraged. PVR must be considered a multifactorial disease caused by interaction of several cells and intra- and extraocular factors. Therefore, therapeutic options based on the inhibition of one factor or phenomenon may be regarded with scepticism. To prevent PVR, it is necessary to determine the factors involved in its development, and because of its relatively small prevalence, large, prospective, multicenter studies seem necessary. In addition, clinical research must not be underestimated. PVR affects both sides of the retina and the retina itself, a point to which little attention has been paid and that is critical for surgical results. Therefore, a new classification that provides information about clinical relevance, such as the evolutionary stages of the disease (biologic activity) and the degree of surgical difficulty (location of the fibrotic process), seems necessary.