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      Identifying Patients at Risk for Hemodialysis Underprescription

      a , a,b
      American Journal of Nephrology
      S. Karger AG
      Hemodialysis, Prescription, Adequacy of dialysis

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          Underprescription of hemodialysis is an important barrier to adequate delivery of dialysis. We sought to determine which patient factors are associated with hemodialysis underprescription and to examine variation in prescription across facilities. For 721 randomly selected patients from all 22 chronic hemodialysis units in northeast Ohio, we calculated prescribed Kt/V based on dialyzer urea clearance at prescribed blood and dialysate flow (K), prescribed treatment time (t), and anthropometric volume (V). A minimum ‘prescribed Kt/V’ of 1.3 has been recommended to ensure an adequate ‘delivered Kt/V’ of 1.2. Using this criterion, 15% of patients had a low prescribed Kt/V. Prescribed Kt was strongly related to patient anthropometric volume but not to other patient characteristics (age, gender, race, cause of renal failure, number of years on dialysis, number of comorbid conditions). A 10-liter increase in V was associated with an 8.3-liter increase in prescribed Kt. However, a 13-liter increase in prescribed Kt would be needed to maintain a prescribed Kt/V of 1.3. As a result, the proportion of patients with low prescriptions increased from 2% of patients with V <35 liters to 42% of patients with V ≧50 liters. In addition, the prevalence of low prescriptions varied dramatically across facilities (range 0–47%) even after accounting for volumes of individual patients. Of the 109 patients with low prescription, 75% would achieve a prescribed Kt/V of 1.3 with less than 30 min of additional treatment time. In conclusion, large patients and patients at specific facilities are at increased risk for underprescription of hemodialysis. Most patients with low prescriptions would achieve a prescribed Kt/V of 1.3 with a modest increase in treatment time.

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          Most cited references3

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          The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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            Hemodialysis access failure: a call to action.

            Recent evidence suggests that the cost as well as the morbidity associated with the maintenance of hemodialysis access is increasing rapidly; currently, the cost exceeds 1 billion dollars and access related hospitalization accounts for 25% of all hospital admissions in the U.S.A. This increase in cost and morbidity has been associated with several epidemiological trends that may contribute to access failure. These include late patient referral to nephrologists and surgeons, late planning of vascular access as well as a shift from A-V fistulaes to PTFE grafts and temporary catheters, which have a higher failure rate. The reasons for this shift in the types of access is multifactorial and is not explained by changes in the co-morbidities of patients presenting to dialysis. Surgical preference and training also appear to play an important role in the large regional variation and patency rate of these PTFE grafts. We propose a program for early placement of A-V fistulae, a continuous quality improvement, multidisciplinary program to monitor access outcome, the development of new biomaterials, and a research plan to investigate pharmacological intervention to reduce development of stenosis and clinical interventions to treat those that do develop, prior to thrombosis.
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              The End Stage Renal Disease Program


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                June 2001
                25 June 2001
                : 21
                : 3
                : 200-207
                aDivision of Nephrology and Center for Health Care Research and Policy, MetroHealth Medical Center, and bDepartment of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Ethics, and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
                46248 Am J Nephrol 2001;21:200–207
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46248
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/46248
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Clinical Study

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Hemodialysis,Prescription,Adequacy of dialysis
                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
                Hemodialysis, Prescription, Adequacy of dialysis


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