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      Dopamine Receptor Signaling

      , ,

      Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction

      Informa UK Limited

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          Role of transactivation of the EGF receptor in signalling by G-protein-coupled receptors.

          Transduction of a mitogenic signal from the cell membrane to the nucleus involves the adapter proteins SHC and Grb2, which mediate activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. In contrast to receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the signalling steps leading to Ras/MAP kinase activation by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are still poorly characterized but appear to include beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and as-yet unidentified tyrosine kinases. We report here that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the neu oncoprotein become rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated upon stimulation of Rat-1 cells with the GPCR agonists endothelin-1, lysophosphatic acid and thrombin, suggesting that there is an intracellular mechanism for transactivation. Specific inhibition of EGFR function by either the selective tyrphostin AG1478 or a dominant-negative EGFR mutant suppressed MAP kinase activation and strongly inhibited induction of fos gene expression and DNA synthesis. Our results demonstrate a role for RTKs as downstream mediators in GPCR mitogenic signalling and suggest a ligand-independent mechanism of RTK activation through intracellular signal crosstalk.
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            Golf: an olfactory neuron specific-G protein involved in odorant signal transduction.

            Biochemical and electrophysiological studies suggest that odorants induce responses in olfactory sensory neurons via an adenylate cyclase cascade mediated by a G protein. An olfactory-specific guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein alpha subunit has now been characterized and evidence is presented suggesting that this G protein, termed Golf, mediates olfaction. Messenger RNA that encodes Golf alpha is expressed in olfactory neuroephithelium but not in six other tissues tested. Moreover, within the olfactory epithelium, Golf alpha appears to be expressed only by the sensory neurons. Specific antisera were used to localize Golf alpha protein to the sensory apparatus of the receptor neurons. Golf alpha shares extensive amino acid identity (88 percent) with the stimulatory G protein, Gs alpha. The expression of Golf alpha in S49 cyc- kin- cells, a line deficient in endogenous stimulatory G proteins, demonstrates its capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase in a heterologous system.
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              Transcriptional regulation by extracellular signals: mechanisms and specificity.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction
                Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction
                Informa UK Limited
                1079-9893
                1532-4281
                September 20 2004
                September 20 2004
                : 24
                : 3
                : 165-205
                Article
                10.1081/RRS-200029981
                © 2004

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