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      Spectrometric and voltammetric studies of the interaction between quercetin and bovine serum albumin using warfarin as site marker with the aid of chemometrics.

      Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
      Binding Sites, drug effects, Biological Markers, metabolism, Drug Interactions, Electrochemistry, methods, Models, Biological, Models, Chemical, Osmolar Concentration, Polymers, chemistry, Quercetin, Serum Albumin, Bovine, Spectrometry, Fluorescence, Warfarin, pharmacology

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          The interaction of quercetin, which is a bioflavonoid, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under pseudo-physiological conditions by the application of UV-vis spectrometry, spectrofluorimetry and cyclic voltammetry (CV). These studies indicated a cooperative interaction between the quercetin-BSA complex and warfarin, which produced a ternary complex, quercetin-BSA-warfarin. It was found that both quercetin and warfarin were located in site I. However, the spectra of these three components overlapped and the chemometrics method - multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to resolve the spectra. The resolved spectra of quercetin-BSA and warfarin agreed well with their measured spectra, and importantly, the spectrum of the quercetin-BSA-warfarin complex was extracted. These results allowed the rationalization of the behaviour of the overlapping spectra. At lower concentrations ([warfarin]<1x10(-5) mol L(-1)), most of the site marker reacted with the quercetin-BSA, but free warfarin was present at higher concentrations. Interestingly, the ratio between quercetin-BSA and warfarin was found to be 1:2, suggesting a quercetin-BSA-(warfarin)(2) complex, and the estimated equilibrium constant was 1.4x10(11)M(-2). The results suggest that at low concentrations, warfarin binds at the high-affinity sites (HAS), while low-affinity binding sites (LAS) are occupied at higher concentrations.

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