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      The next generation of insecticides: dsRNA is stable as a foliar-applied insecticide : dsRNA is stable as a foliar applied insecticide

      1 , 1

      Pest Management Science

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          RNAi is a powerful tool used to study gene function. It also has been hypothesized to be a promising new method for control of insect pests on crops, although the perceived instability of dsRNA in the environment has constrained thinking about the options for this new type of pest control.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs.

          Over the last decade, approximately 20-30 nucleotide RNA molecules have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes. Two primary categories of these small RNAs--short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs)--act in both somatic and germline lineages in a broad range of eukaryotic species to regulate endogenous genes and to defend the genome from invasive nucleic acids. Recent advances have revealed unexpected diversity in their biogenesis pathways and the regulatory mechanisms that they access. Our understanding of siRNA- and miRNA-based regulation has direct implications for fundamental biology as well as disease etiology and treatment.
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            Control of coleopteran insect pests through RNA interference.

            Commercial biotechnology solutions for controlling lepidopteran and coleopteran insect pests on crops depend on the expression of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins, most of which permeabilize the membranes of gut epithelial cells of susceptible insects. However, insect control strategies involving a different mode of action would be valuable for managing the emergence of insect resistance. Toward this end, we demonstrate that ingestion of double-stranded (ds)RNAs supplied in an artificial diet triggers RNA interference in several coleopteran species, most notably the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. This may result in larval stunting and mortality. Transgenic corn plants engineered to express WCR dsRNAs show a significant reduction in WCR feeding damage in a growth chamber assay, suggesting that the RNAi pathway can be exploited to control insect pests via in planta expression of a dsRNA.
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              Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review.

              RNA interference already proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects, but it also has considerable potential for the control of pest insects. For this purpose, the insect should be able to autonomously take up the dsRNA, for example through feeding and digestion in its midgut. In this review we bring together current knowledge on the uptake mechanisms of dsRNA in insects and the potential of RNAi to affect pest insects. At least two pathways for dsRNA uptake in insects are described: the transmembrane channel-mediated uptake mechanism based on Caenorhabditis elegans' SID-1 protein and an 'alternative' endocytosis-mediated uptake mechanism. In the second part of the review dsRNA feeding experiments on insects are brought together for the first time, highlighting the achievement of implementing RNAi in insect control with the first successful experiments in transgenic plants and the diversity of successfully tested insect orders/species and target genes. We conclude with points of discussion and concerns regarding further research on dsRNA uptake mechanisms and the promising application possibilities for RNAi in insect control. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pest Management Science
                Pest. Manag. Sci.
                Wiley
                1526498X
                April 2016
                April 2016
                July 14 2015
                : 72
                : 4
                : 801-809
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Entomology; Cornell University; Ithaca NY USA
                Article
                10.1002/ps.4056
                26097110
                © 2015

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ps.4056

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