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      Disturbing Dreams and Psychosocial Maladjustment in Children: A Prospective Study of the Moderating Role of Early Negative Emotionality

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          Although frequent disturbing dreams, including bad dreams and nightmares, have been repeatedly associated with poor psychological well-being in adults, considerably less information exists on their psychosocial correlates in children. Recent empirical and theoretical contributions suggest that the association between disturbing dream frequency and psychosocial adaptation in children may differ as a function of children's negative emotionality. The current study assessed the moderating effect of very early negative emotionality (17 months of age) in the relation between disturbing dream frequency and psychosocial maladjustment (i.e., externalizing + internalizing behaviors) in a sample of 173 11-year-old children. Mixed-model analyses revealed that disturbing dream frequency was associated with some internalizing behaviors but that the association between disturbing dream frequency and most externalizing behaviors was moderated by early negative emotionality. The latter result indicates that the relation between disturbing dream frequency and externalizing behaviors was significant in 11-year-old children showing moderate negative emotionality early in life, but particularly strong in those children with high early negative emotionality. Whereas, a moderating effect of early negative emotionality was not found between disturbing dream frequency and internalizing behaviors, the findings highlight the more specific role of early emotional negativity as a developmental moderator for the link between disturbing dreams and externalizing behaviors in children. The results are discussed in light of recent models of disturbed dreaming production.

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          Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: a review of the past 10 years.

          To review critically the past 10 years of research on youth suicide. Research literature on youth suicide was reviewed following a systematic search of PsycINFO and Medline. The search for school-based suicide prevention programs was expanded using two education databases: ERIC and Education Full Text. Finally, manual reviews of articles' reference lists identified additional studies. The review focuses on epidemiology, risk factors, prevention strategies, and treatment protocols. There has been a dramatic decrease in the youth suicide rate during the past decade. Although a number of factors have been posited for the decline, one of the more plausible ones appears to be the increase in antidepressants being prescribed for adolescents during this period. Youth psychiatric disorder, a family history of suicide and psychopathology, stressful life events, and access to firearms are key risk factors for youth suicide. Exciting new findings have emerged on the biology of suicide in adults, but, while encouraging, these are yet to be replicated in youths. Promising prevention strategies, including school-based skills training for students, screening for at-risk youths, education of primary care physicians, media education, and lethal-means restriction, need continuing evaluation studies. Dialectical behavior therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and treatment with antidepressants have been identified as promising treatments but have not yet been tested in a randomized clinical trial of youth suicide. While tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of who is at risk for suicide, it is incumbent upon future research efforts to focus on the development and evaluation of empirically based suicide prevention and treatment protocols.
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            Etiologic connections among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and personality: modeling the externalizing spectrum.

            A hierarchical biometric model is presented of the origins of comorbidity among substance dependence, antisocial behavior, and a disinhibited personality style. The model posits a spectrum of personality and psychopathology, united by an externalizing factor linked to each phenotype within the spectrum, as well as specific factors that account for distinctions among phenotypes within the spectrum. This model fit self-report and mother-report data from 1,048 male and female 17-year-old twins. The variance of the externalizing factor was mostly genetic, but both genetic and environmental factors accounted for distinctions among phenotypes within the spectrum. These results reconcile evidence for general and specific causal factors within the externalizing spectrum and offer the externalizing factor as a novel target for future research.
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              Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders.


                Author and article information

                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 August 2020
                : 11
                1Clinique de Consultation Conjugale et Familiale Poitras-Wright, Côté , Longueuil, QC, Canada
                2Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal , Montreal, QC, Canada
                3CHU Ste-Justine Research Center , Montreal, QC, Canada
                4School of Psychoeducation, Université de Montréal , Montreal, QC, Canada
                5Department of Pediatrics, Université de Montréal , Montreal, QC, Canada
                6School of Public Health, University College Dublin , Dublin, Ireland
                7Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Université de Montréal , Montreal, QC, Canada
                Author notes

                Edited by: S. R. Pandi-Perumal, Somnogen Canada Inc., Canada

                Reviewed by: Kevin P. Grace, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, United States; Mark Blagrove, Swansea University, United Kingdom

                *Correspondence: Jean R. Séguin jean.seguin@

                This article was submitted to Sleep Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Copyright © 2020 Gauchat, Zadra, El-Hourani, Parent, Tremblay and Séguin.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 139, Pages: 11, Words: 9358
                Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research 10.13039/501100000024
                Funded by: Fonds de Recherche du Québec - Santé 10.13039/501100000156
                Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada 10.13039/501100000155
                Funded by: Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Société et Culture 10.13039/100008240
                Original Research


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