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      miR-4780 Derived from N2-Like Neutrophil Exosome Aggravates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer


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          Despite significant advances in diagnostic methods and treatment strategies, the prognosis for patients with advanced colon cancer remains poor, and mortality rates are often high due to metastasis. Increasing evidence showed that it is of significant importance to investigate how the tumor microenvironment participates in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this manuscript, neutrophils were sequentially stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid and transforming growth factor- β in turn to induce the neutrophil polarization. Differentially expressed miRNA in neutrophil exosomes have been sequenced by microarray profile, and the effect of N2-like neutrophil-derived exosomal miR-4780 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis was investigated. In our results, we found that neutrophils were enriched in CRC tumor tissue and that CD11b expression correlated with tumor site and serous membrane invasion. At the same time, we demonstrated that internalization of N2 exosomes exacerbated the viability, migration, and invasion of CRC cell lines and inhibited apoptosis. To further investigate the molecular mechanism, we analyzed the miRNA expression profile in the N2-like neutrophils, which led to the selection of hsa-miR-4780 for the subsequent experiment. The overexpression of miR-4780 from N2-like neutrophil-derived exosomes exacerbated EMT and angiogenesis. Moreover, miR-4780 can regulate its target gene SOX11 to effect EMT and angiogenesis in CRC cell lines. CRC with liver metastasis model also validated that aberrant expression of miR-4780 in N2-like neutrophil exosomes exacerbated tumor metastasis and development of tumor via EMT and angiogenesis. In conclusion, our current findings reveal an important mechanism by which mR-4780 from N2-like neutrophil exosomes exacerbates tumor metastasis and progression via EMT and angiogenesis.

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          Most cited references67

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          Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis.

          Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects.
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            EMT Transition States during Tumor Progression and Metastasis

            Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal features. In cancer, EMT is associated with tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that EMT is not a binary process, but occurs through distinct cellular states. Here, we review the recent studies that demonstrate the existence of these different EMT states in cancer and the mechanisms regulating their functions. We discuss the different functional characteristics, such as proliferation, propagation, plasticity, invasion, and metastasis associated with the distinct EMT states. We summarize the role of the transcriptional and epigenetic landscapes, gene regulatory network and their surrounding niche in controlling the transition through the different EMT states.
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              Overview of Extracellular Vesicles, Their Origin, Composition, Purpose, and Methods for Exosome Isolation and Analysis

              The use of extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes, as carriers of biomarkers in extracellular spaces has been well demonstrated. Despite their promising potential, the use of exosomes in the clinical setting is restricted due to the lack of standardization in exosome isolation and analysis methods. The purpose of this review is to not only introduce the different types of extracellular vesicles but also to summarize their differences and similarities, and discuss different methods of exosome isolation and analysis currently used. A thorough understanding of the isolation and analysis methods currently being used could lead to some standardization in the field of exosomal research, allowing the use of exosomes in the clinical setting to become a reality.

                Author and article information

                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells Int
                Stem Cells International
                4 August 2023
                : 2023
                : 2759679
                1Department of Gastrointestinal and Anal Surgery, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
                2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Changzhi People's Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Muhammad Muddassir Ali

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Liang Wang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 October 2022
                : 26 December 2022
                : 6 April 2023
                Funded by: Zhejiang University
                Award ID: YQNYC202108
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine


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