The cephalic structures of the final instar larva of 278 species of 140 genera of Braconidae were examined. On the basis of these and biological data, modifications are proposed in the classification of the higher categories. Zele (Helconinae) and Eubadizon (Blacinae) are placed in the Macrocentrinae (endoparasites of larval Lepidoptera) and Meteoridea is moved from the Helconinae and ranked as an independent subfamily. The Blacinae is completely dismembered: Aliolus , Triaspis , Urosigalphus , Blacus , and Calyptus form a tribe of the Helconinae (endoparasites of larval Coleoptera); Microtypus , Orgilus , and Stantonia form a tribe of the Agathidinae (endoparasites of larval Lepidoptera); and Pygostolus , Centistes , and Syrrhizus a subfamily near Euphorinae with Cosmophorus (endoparasites of adult Coleoptera). Present genera of Microgasterinae are separated into two tribes with the addition of the Cardiochilini as a third tribe. The Dacnusinae is reduced to a tribe of the Alysiinae. The Rogadinae is reduced to one tribe, Rogadini, containing only Rogas and allied genera (endoparasites of larval Lepidoptera). Rhyssalus is transferred to the Hecabolini, and Exothecini, Pambolini, Hormiini, and ectoparasitic Rogadini to the Braconinae (ectoparasites of larval Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, etc.). The problematic genus Gnaptodon is also placed in the Braconinae.