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      Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings ( Balaenoptera borealis , Balaenoptera physalus , Peponocephala electra , and Pseudorca crassidens ). A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins ( Sotalia guianensis , N = 12), the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Variação espacial e temporal da precipitação no Estado do Pará

          Estudos sobre a climatologia das precipitações no Estado do Pará são essenciais para o planejamento das atividades agrícolas. A variação da precipitação anual e sazonal no Estado do Pará foi analisada com base em séries históricas de 23 anos (1976-1998) de dados diários de chuva. A análise foi realizada para 31 localidades do Estado do Pará, sendo os resultados representados em mapas com a utilização de técnicas de sistemas de informações geográficas (SIG). A variabilidade da precipitação anual e sazonal foi caracterizada com base no coeficiente de variação e no índice de variabilidade interanual relativo. A variação desses coeficientes para a precipitação anual no Estado do Pará foi de 15 a 30%. As características mensais da estação chuvosa, em termos de início, fim e duração, foram determinadas utilizando-se o critério proposto por KASSAM (1979). A variação entre as datas de plantio precoces e tardias corresponderam aos decêndios identificados pelos dias julianos 309319 e 353363, respectivamente.
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            An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

            A novel Amazonian reef biome was discovered, encompassing large rhodolith and sponge beds under low light, low oxygen, and high POC.
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              Periodic variability in cetacean strandings: links to large-scale climate events.

              Cetacean strandings elicit much community and scientific interest, but few quantitative analyses have successfully identified environmental correlates to these phenomena. Data spanning 1920-2002, involving a total of 639 stranding events and 39 taxa groups from southeast Australia, were found to demonstrate a clear 11-13- year periodicity in the number of events through time. These data positively correlated with the regional persistence of both zonal (westerly) and meridional (southerly) winds, reflecting general long-term and large-scale shifts in sea-level pressure gradients. Periods of persistent zonal and meridional winds result in colder and presumably nutrient-rich waters being driven closer to southern Australia, resulting in increased biological activity in the water column during the spring months. These observations suggest that large-scale climatic events provide a powerful distal influence on the propensity for whales to strand in this region. These patterns provide a powerful quantitative framework for testing hypotheses regarding environmental links to strandings and provide managers with a potential predictive tool to prepare for years of peak stranding activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                ZooKeys
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2017
                9 August 2017
                : 688
                : 111-134
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Grupo de Estudos de Mamíferos Aquáticos da Amazônia (GEMAM). Programa de Capacitação Institucional, Setor de Mastozoologia, Coordenação de Zoologia, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Av. Perimetral, 1901, Terra Firme, 66077-530 Belém, PA, Brazil
                [2 ] PPG em Ecologia Aquática e Pesca, Universidade Federal do Pará-UFPA, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Cidade Universitária José da Silveira Netto, Av. Augusto Corrêa n° 1, Guamá, 66075-110, Belém, PA, Brazil
                [3 ] Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, Pavilhão Mourisco – sala 122, Av. Brasil, 4365 - Manguinhos, 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                [4 ] PPG em Ecologia e Conservação da Biodiversidade, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz – UESC. Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16-Pav. Maz de Menezes, 1º andar, sala 1DA, Salobrinho, 45662-900 Ilhéus, BA, Brazil
                [5 ] PPG em Biologia Ambiental, Universidade Federal do Pará – UFPA, Campus de Bragança. Alameda Leandro Ribeiro s/n, Aldeia, 68600-000 Bragança, PA, Brazil
                [6 ] Laboratório de Biologia Pesqueira e Manejo dos Recursos Aquáticos, Universidade Federal do Pará – UFPA, Av. Perimetral, 2651 Terra Firme, 66077-830 Belém, PA, Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Alexandra Fernandes Costa ( alexandrafernandescosta@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: P. Stoev

                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.688.12636
                5672584
                29118593
                Alexandra Fernandes Costa, Salvatore Siciliano, Renata Emin-Lima, Bruna Maria Lima Martins, Maura Elisabeth Moraes Sousa, Tommaso Giarrizzo, José de Sousa e Silva Júnior

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais 501100004901 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100004901
                Categories
                Research Article

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