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      Immunoreactive interleukin-1β localization in the rat forebrain

      , , , , , ,

      Brain Research

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 28

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          Immunoregulatory feedback between interleukin-1 and glucocorticoid hormones.

          The production and action of immunoregulatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), are inhibited by glucocorticoid hormones in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, glucocorticoid blood levels were increased by factors released by human leukocytes exposed to Newcastle disease virus preparations. This activity was neutralized by an antibody to IL-1. Therefore the capacity of IL-1 to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal axis was tested. Administration of subpyrogenic doses of homogeneous human monocyte-derived IL-1 or the pI 7 form of human recombinant IL-1 to mice and rats increased blood levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and glucocorticoids. Another monokine, tumor necrosis factor, and the lymphokines IL-2 and gamma-interferon had no such effects when administered in doses equivalent to or higher than those of IL-1. The stimulatory effect of IL-1 on the pituitary-adrenal axis seemed not to be mediated by the secondary release of products from mature T lymphocytes since IL-1 was endocrinologically active when injected into athymic nude mice. These results strongly support the existence of an immunoregulatory feedback circuit in which IL-1 acts as an afferent and glucocorticoid as an efferent hormonal signal.
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            Interleukin-1 regulates synthesis of nerve growth factor in non-neuronal cells of rat sciatic nerve.

            The Schwann cells and fibroblast-like cells of the intact sciatic nerve of adult rats synthesize very little nerve growth factor (NGF). After lesion, however, there is a dramatic increase in the amounts of both NGF-mRNA and NGF protein synthesized by the sciatic non-neuronal cells. This local increase in NGF synthesis partially replaces the interrupted NGF supply from the periphery to the NGF-responsive sensory and sympathetic neurons, whose axons run within the sciatic nerve. Macrophages, known to invade the site of nerve lesion during wallerian degeneration, are important in the regulation of NGF synthesis. Here we demonstrate that the effect of macrophages on NGF-mRNA levels in cultured explants of sciatic nerve can be mimicked by conditioned media of activated macrophages, and that interleukin-1 is the responsible agent.
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              Corticotropin-releasing factor-producing neurons in the rat activated by interleukin-1.

              Intraperitoneal administration of human recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) to rats can increase blood levels of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The route by which IL-1 affects pituitary-adrenal activity is unknown. That the IL-1-induced pituitary-adrenal activation involves an increased secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is indicated by three lines of evidence. First, immunoneutralization of CRF markedly attenuated the IL-1-induced increase of ACTH blood levels. Second, after blockade of fast axonal transport in hypothalamic neurons by colchicine, IL-1 administration decreased the CRF immunostaining in the median eminence, indicating an enhanced release of CRF in response to IL-1. Third, IL-1 did not stimulate ACTH release from primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. These data further support the notion of the existence of an immunoregulatory feedback circuit between the immune system and the brain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Brain Research
                Brain Research
                Elsevier BV
                00068993
                April 1990
                April 1990
                : 514
                : 1
                : 135-140
                Article
                10.1016/0006-8993(90)90445-H
                © 1990

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