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      A systematic review of malignancy-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that needs more attentions


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          As an infrequent but potentially life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is clinically characterized with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow, liver, spleen or lymph nodes. Malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH), one type of acquired HLH, usually presents variable overlaps of symptoms with other types of HLH, thus resulting in higher incidence of misdiagnosis and mortality. In recent years, with the increasing awareness to this disease, the diagnosis and management of HLH have gained more and more attention, and improvements have been made accordingly. As a result, the survival of patients is greatly prolonged. However, there is still no consensus on the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies due to lack of large samples or prospective clinical trials. In order to improve recognition and diagnosis, and provide guidance regarding the treatment of M-HLH, the Study Group in HLH Subtypes of the Histiocyte Society has developed consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of M-HLH in 2015. In the present article, we summarized and discussed some updated understandings in M-HLH.

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          Hemophagocytic syndromes--an update.

          Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome and not an independent disease. HLH represents the extreme end of a severe uncontrolled hyperinflammatory reaction that can occur in many underlying conditions. Genetic forms of HLHs are due to defects in transport, processing and function of cytotoxic granules in natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and are not restricted to manifestation in childhood. Acquired forms of HLH are encountered in infections, autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, malignancies, acquired immune deficiency. Functional tests allow for differentiation between genetic and acquired HLH. Treatment aims at suppressing hypercytokinemia and eliminating activated and infected cells. It includes immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents, cytostatics, T-cell and cytokine antibodies. In genetic HLH cure can only be achieved with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens have considerably improved survival.
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            Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome in adults: a retrospective analysis of 162 patients.

            Current knowledge in reactive hemophagocytic syndrome mainly relies on single-center case series including a relatively small number of patients. We aimed to identify a multicenter large cohort of adult patients with reactive hemophagocytic syndrome and to describe relevant clinical and laboratory features, underlying conditions, and outcome.
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              How I treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the adult patient.

              Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a devastating disorder of uncontrolled immune activation characterized by clinical and laboratory evidence of extreme inflammation. This syndrome can be caused by genetic mutations affecting cytotoxic function (familial HLH) or be secondary to infectious, rheumatologic, malignant, or metabolic conditions (acquired HLH). Prompt recognition is paramount and, without early treatment, this disorder is frequently fatal. Although HLH is well described in the pediatric population, less is known about the appropriate work-up and treatment in adults. Here, we review the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of HLH in adults.

                Author and article information

                Impact Journals LLC
                29 August 2017
                14 July 2017
                : 8
                : 35
                : 59977-59985
                1 Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China
                2 Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China
                3 Department of Respiratory, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Fei Li, yx021021@ 123456sina.com
                Copyright: © 2017 Wang et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 17 May 2017
                : 29 June 2017

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis,hemophagocytic syndrome,malignancy,lymphoma


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