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      Antifungal Efficacy and Safety of Cycloheximide as a Supplement in Optisol-GS

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The incidence of fungal infection after corneal transplant has increased significantly in recent years, especially Candida spp. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the addition of cycloheximide in Optisol-GS media in decreasing the growth of Candida spp. strains.

          Methods

          This in vitro laboratory efficacy study measured fungal colony growth in 24 vials of Optisol-GS that were divided into 6 groups of 4 vials each, as follows: (1) MIC/2 cycloheximide, (2) MIC cycloheximide, (3) MICx5 cycloheximide, (4) MICx10 cycloheximide, from MIC values obtained for each strain, (5) unsupplemented optisol-GS as a positive control (added inoculum), and (6) unsupplemented optisol-GS as a negative control (no inoculum). In each group was added Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, except in the negative control. The evaluated variables were fungal colony growth from the Optisol-GS vials, corneal endothelial cell density and endothelial cell viability at different concentrations of cycloheximide.

          Results

          In the efficacy study, all strains showed a reduction in fungal cell growth from the second day at all evaluated concentrations of optisol-GS supplemented with cycloheximide, even at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/2). For C. glabrata, the colony count was reduced to 99%. No evidence of corneal endothelial toxicity was found at any concentration, in the safety study, compared with the paired control.

          Conclusion

          The addition of cycloheximide to optisol-GS decreased the fungal growth, demonstrating fungicide action against C. glabrata and fungistatic action against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. This drug did not demonstrate toxicity to the corneal endothelium at different concentrations.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Report of the Eye Bank Association of America medical advisory board subcommittee on fungal infection after corneal transplantation.

          To investigate the incidence of fungal infections after corneal transplantation to determine whether storage media supplementation with an antifungal should be considered.
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            Eye bank issues: II. Preservation techniques: warm versus cold storage

            Most of the tissue used for penetrating keratoplasty is issued through eye banks that store the corneoscleral button either in hypothermic storage at 2–6°C or in organ culture at 31–37°C. These two preservation techniques differ in technical aspects, tissue evaluation possibilities, storage time and microbiological safety. Hypothermic storage is simple and requires little expensive equipment. In general a pre-storage evaluation of the endothelium is performed by specular microscopy and storage time is usually around 7–10 days. Organ culture is a relatively complicated technique requiring more expertise and well-equipped facilities. Evaluation of the endothelium is not only performed before storage, but is routinely performed after storage through the use of light microscopy. With organ culture the allowed storage period is longer, up to four weeks. The vulnerability of organ culture to microbial contamination can be turned into an advantage because it allows the detection of residual micro-organisms on the cornea before surgery. Both preservation techniques seem to result in similar graft survival. The method of choice for preservation of the donor cornea is dictated by a number of factors mentioned in this review and this helps to explain the geographical differences in the use of the different techniques.
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              From reading books to increased smart device screen time

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                18 May 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 2091-2098
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Cirúrgicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre, Brazil
                [2 ]Ophthalmology Department, Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre , Porto Alegre, Brazil
                [3 ]Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre, Brazil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Melissa Dal Pizzol Ophthalmology Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, Zona 17, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-903, RS, BrazilTel +55 5133598306 Email melissadalpizzol@hotmail.com
                Article
                298059
                10.2147/DDDT.S298059
                8140884
                34040347
                © 2021 Dal Pizzol et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 26, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                eye banking, cornea, infection, pharmacology

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