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      The Possible Role of Radiofrequency Radiation in the Development of Uveal Melanoma :

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          Abstract

          There are few epidemiologic studies dealing with electromagnetic radiation and uveal melanoma. The majority of these studies are exploratory and are based on job and industry titles only. We conducted a hospital-based and population-based case-control study of uveal melanoma and occupational exposures to different sources of electromagnetic radiation, including radiofrequency radiation. We then pooled these results. We interviewed a total of 118 female and male cases with uveal melanoma and 475 controls matching on sex, age, and study regions. Exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices was rated as (a) no radiofrequency radiation exposure, (b) possible exposure to mobile phones, or (c) probable/certain exposure to mobile phones. Exposures were rated independently by two of the authors who did not know case or control status. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found an elevated risk for exposure to radiofrequency-transmitting devices (exposure to radio sets, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4-6.3; probable/certain exposure to mobile phones, OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2-14.5). Other sources of electromagnetic radiation such as high-voltage lines, electrical machines, complex electrical environments, visual display terminals, or radar units were not associated with uveal melanoma. This is the first study describing an association between radiofrequency radiation exposure and uveal melanoma. Several methodologic limitations prevent our results from providing clear evidence on the hypothesized association.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Response rates among control subjects in case-control studies.

          Response rates are an important component of epidemiologic research. The purposes of this study are (a) to evaluate how response rates are defined and calculated for control subjects in epidemiologic case-control studies, and (b) to explore factors that may impact response in epidemiologic studies. Our results show that the method of control subject selection has an impact on study response. Gender of respondent does not appear to impact response rates. However, response rates are generally worse for individuals less than 45 years old. Methods used to calculate response have a great impact on "response rate"; therefore, it is important for researchers to define exactly what the reported response rates represent and how they are derived so that data can be interpreted appropriately.
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            Sunlight exposure as risk factor for intraocular malignant melanoma.

            In a case-control study, we compared 444 patients with intraocular malignant melanoma with matched controls to evaluate the role of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and other risk factors in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Persons born in the southern United States had a relative risk of 2.7 (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.9) as compared with those born in the North. Subjects with brown eyes were protected as compared with those with blue eyes (relative risk, 0.6; 95 per cent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.8), but complexion and hair color were not important risk factors. Patients with intraocular malignant melanoma were also more likely to have spent time outdoors in their gardens, to have sunbathed, and to have used sunlamps. Rarely wearing hats, visors, or sunglasses while in the sun was a risk factor for the disease (relative risk, 1.9; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.2). These data suggest that sunlight exposure is an important risk factor for intraocular melanoma.
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              Assessment of cellular telephone and other radio frequency exposure for epidemiologic research.

               K Rothman,  C Chou,  R. Morgan (1996)
              Epidemiologists are now embarking on the evaluation of the hypothesis that exposure to radio frequency energy from low-power wireless communication devices, such as portable cellular telephones, causes brain cancer and other adverse health outcomes. Even in the laboratory, exposures from radio frequency sources are difficult to quantify; their measurement in large populations for epidemiologic study is challenging. In this paper, we outline the nature and magnitude of these exposures and discuss the prospects for obtaining useful measures of exposure for epidemiologic research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Epidemiology
                Epidemiology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1044-3983
                2001
                January 2001
                : 12
                : 1
                : 7-12
                Article
                10.1097/00001648-200101000-00003
                11138823
                © 2001

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