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      Screening and Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Chinese Sauerkraut and Evaluation of the Serum Uric Acid Lowering Effect in Hyperuricemic Rats

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          Abstract

          Hyperuricemia is well known as the cause of gout. In recent years, it has also been recognized as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and nephropathy in diabetic patients. Foods high in purine compounds are more potent in exacerbating hyperuricemia. Therefore, the development of probiotics that efficiently degrade purine compounds is a promising potential therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia. In this study, fifty-five lactic acid bacteria isolated from Chinese sauerkraut were evaluated for the ability to degrade inosine and guanosine, the two key intermediates in purine metabolism. After a preliminary screening based on HPLC, three candidate strains with the highest nucleoside degrading rates were selected for further characterization. The tested biological characteristics of candidate strains included acid tolerance, bile tolerance, anti-pathogenic bacteria activity, cell adhesion ability, resistance to antibiotics and the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Among the selected strains, DM9218 showed the best probiotic potential compared with other strains despite its poor bile resistance. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences showed that DM9218 has the highest similarity (99%) to Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. The acclimated strain DM9218-A showed better resistance to 0.3% bile salt, and its survival in gastrointestinal tract of rats was proven by PCR-DGGE. Furthermore, the effects of DM9218-A in a hyperuricemia rat model were evaluated. The level of serum uric acid in hyperuricemic rat can be efficiently reduced by the intragastric administration of DM9218-A ( P<0.05). The preventive treatment of DM9218-A caused a greater reduction in serum uric acid concentration in hyperuricemic rats than the later treatment ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that DM9218-A may be a promising candidate as an adjunctive treatment in patients with hyperuricemia during the onset period of disease. DM9218-A also has potential as a probiotic in the prevention of hyperuricemia in the normal population.

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          A role for uric acid in the progression of renal disease.

          Hyperuricemia is associated with renal disease, but it is usually considered a marker of renal dysfunction rather than a risk factor for progression. Recent studies have reported that mild hyperuricemia in normal rats induced by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA), results in hypertension, intrarenal vascular disease, and renal injury. This led to the hypothesis that uric acid may contribute to progressive renal disease. To examine the effect of hyperuricemia on renal disease progression, rats were fed 2% OA for 6 wk after 5/6 remnant kidney (RK) surgery with or without the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or the uricosuric agent, benziodarone. Renal function and histologic studies were performed at 6 wk. Given observations that uric acid induces vascular disease, the effect of uric acid on vascular smooth muscle cells in culture was also examined. RK rats developed transient hyperuricemia (2.7 mg/dl at week 2), but then levels returned to baseline by week 6 (1.4 mg/dl). In contrast, RK+OA rats developed higher and more persistent hyperuricemia (6 wk, 3.2 mg/dl). Hyperuricemic rats demonstrated higher BP, greater proteinuria, and higher serum creatinine than RK rats. Hyperuricemic RK rats had more renal hypertrophy and greater glomerulosclerosis (24.2 +/- 2.5 versus 17.5 +/- 3.4%; P < 0.05) and interstitial fibrosis (1.89 +/- 0.45 versus 1.52 +/- 0.47; P < 0.05). Hyperuricemic rats developed vascular disease consisting of thickening of the preglomerular arteries with smooth muscle cell proliferation; these changes were significantly more severe than a historical RK group with similar BP. Allopurinol significantly reduced uric acid levels and blocked the renal functional and histologic changes. Benziodarone reduced uric acid levels less effectively and only partially improved BP and renal function, with minimal effect on the vascular changes. To better understand the mechanism for the vascular disease, the expression of COX-2 and renin were examined. Hyperuricemic rats showed increased renal renin and COX-2 expression, the latter especially in preglomerular arterial vessels. In in vitro studies, cultured vascular smooth muscle cells incubated with uric acid also generated COX-2 with time-dependent proliferation, which was prevented by either a COX-2 or TXA-2 receptor inhibitor. Hyperuricemia accelerates renal progression in the RK model via a mechanism linked to high systemic BP and COX-2-mediated, thromboxane-induced vascular disease. These studies provide direct evidence that uric acid may be a true mediator of renal disease and progression.
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            Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein.

            To unravel the biological function of the widely used probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, we compared its 3.0-Mbp genome sequence with the similarly sized genome of L. rhamnosus LC705, an adjunct starter culture exhibiting reduced binding to mucus. Both genomes demonstrated high sequence identity and synteny. However, for both strains, genomic islands, 5 in GG and 4 in LC705, punctuated the colinearity. A significant number of strain-specific genes were predicted in these islands (80 in GG and 72 in LC705). The GG-specific islands included genes coding for bacteriophage components, sugar metabolism and transport, and exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. One island only found in L. rhamnosus GG contained genes for 3 secreted LPXTG-like pilins (spaCBA) and a pilin-dedicated sortase. Using anti-SpaC antibodies, the physical presence of cell wall-bound pili was confirmed by immunoblotting. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the SpaC pilin is located at the pilus tip but also sporadically throughout the structure. Moreover, the adherence of strain GG to human intestinal mucus was blocked by SpaC antiserum and abolished in a mutant carrying an inactivated spaC gene. Similarly, binding to mucus was demonstrated for the purified SpaC protein. We conclude that the presence of SpaC is essential for the mucus interaction of L. rhamnosus GG and likely explains its ability to persist in the human intestinal tract longer than LC705 during an intervention trial. The presence of mucus-binding pili on the surface of a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterial strain reveals a previously undescribed mechanism for the interaction of selected probiotic lactobacilli with host tissues.
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              Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans.

              The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studies. The daily consumption by 12 healthy volunteers of two doses of 10(10) freeze-dried bacteria of the selected strains for 18 days was followed by a washout period of 17 days. Fecal samples were taken at days 0 and 18 and during the washout period at days 5 and 11. Lactobacillus isolates were initially identified by API 50CHL and internal transcribed spacer PCR, and their identities were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis in combination with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the tested strains, L. rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, and L. rhamnosus LGG were identified most frequently in fecal samples; they were found in 10, 8, and 7 of the 12 samples tested during the intervention period, respectively, whereas reisolations were less frequent in the washout period. The bacteria were reisolated in concentrations from 10(5) to 10(8) cells/g of feces. Survival and reisolation of the bacteria in vivo appeared to be linked to pH tolerance, adhesion, and antimicrobial properties in vitro.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                3 September 2014
                : 9
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microecology, School of Basic Medical Science, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China
                [2 ]Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
                [3 ]Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
                Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JY. Performed the experiments: ML DY LM. Analyzed the data: ML DY LY LM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JY. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: ML LY AX JY.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-27256
                10.1371/journal.pone.0105577
                4153548
                25184445

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 13
                Funding
                This work was supported by the Key Project of the National Twelfth-Five Year Research Program of China (2012BAI35B02), the National Program on Key Basic Research Project (973 Program, 2013CB531405), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (RFDP, 20132105120012). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biotechnology
                Applied Microbiology
                Microbiology
                Probiotics
                Custom metadata
                The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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