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      Navigator channel adaptation to reconstruct three dimensional heart volumes from two dimensional radiotherapy planning data

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          Abstract

          Background

          Biologically-based models that utilize 3D radiation dosimetry data to estimate the risk of late cardiac effects could have significant utility for planning radiotherapy in young patients. A major challenge arises from having only 2D treatment planning data for patients with long-term follow-up. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of an advanced deformable image registration (DIR) and navigator channels (NC) adaptation technique to reconstruct 3D heart volumes from 2D radiotherapy planning images for Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) patients.

          Methods

          Planning CT images were obtained for 50 HL patients who underwent mediastinal radiotherapy. Twelve image sets (6 male, 6 female) were used to construct a male and a female population heart model, which was registered to 23 HL "Reference" patients' CT images using a DIR algorithm, MORFEUS. This generated a series of population-to-Reference patient specific 3D deformation maps. The technique was independently tested on 15 additional "Test" patients by reconstructing their 3D heart volumes using 2D digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR). The technique involved: 1) identifying a matching Reference patient for each Test patient using thorax measurements, 2) placement of six NCs on matching Reference and Test patients' DRRs to capture differences in significant heart curvatures, 3) adapting the population-to-Reference patient-specific deformation maps to generate population-to-Test patient-specific deformation maps using linear and bilinear interpolation methods, 4) applying population-to-Test patient specific deformation to the population model to reconstruct Test-patient specific 3D heart models. The percentage volume overlap between the NC-adapted reconstruction and actual Test patient's true heart volume was calculated using the Dice coefficient.

          Results

          The average Dice coefficient expressed as a percentage between the NC-adapted and actual Test model was 89.4 ± 2.8%. The modified NC adaptation technique made significant improvements to the population deformation heart models (p = 0.01). As standard evaluation, the residual Dice error after adaptation was comparable to the volumetric differences observed in free-breathing heart volumes ( p = 0.62).

          Conclusions

          The reconstruction technique described generates accurate 3D heart models from limited 2D planning data. This development could potentially be used to retrospectively calculate delivered dose to the heart for historically treated patients and thereby provide a better understanding of late radiation-related cardiac effects.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Measures of the Amount of Ecologic Association Between Species

           Lee Dice (1945)
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            Tolerance of normal tissue to therapeutic irradiation.

            The importance of knowledge on tolerance of normal tissue organs to irradiation by radiation oncologists cannot be overemphasized. Unfortunately, current knowledge is less than adequate. With the increasing use of 3-D treatment planning and dose delivery, this issue, particularly volumetric information, will become even more critical. As a part of the NCI contract N01 CM-47316, a task force, chaired by the primary author, was formed and an extensive literature search was carried out to address this issue. In this issue. In this manuscript we present the updated information on tolerance of normal tissues of concern in the protocols of this contract, based on available data, with a special emphasis on partial volume effects. Due to a lack of precise and comprehensive data base, opinions and experience of the clinicians from four universities involved in the contract have also been contributory. Obviously, this is not and cannot be a comprehensive work, which is beyond the scope of this contract.
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              Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: incidence, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

              Cancer treatment today employs a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery to prolong life and provide cure. However, many of these treatments can cause cardiovascular complications such as heart failure, myocardial ischemia/infarction, hypertension, thromboembolism, and arrhythmias. In this article we review the incidence of cardiotoxicity caused by commonly used chemotherapeutic agents as well as discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prevention of these cardiovascular side effects. Cardiotoxicity related to anticancer treatment is important to recognize as it may have a significant impact on the overall prognosis and survival of cancer patients, and it is likely to remain a significant challenge for both cardiologists and oncologists in the future due to an increasing aging population of patients with cancer and the introduction of many new cancer therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [3 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Med Phys
                BMC Med Phys
                BMC Medical Physics
                BioMed Central
                1756-6649
                2012
                18 January 2012
                : 12
                : 1
                3398341
                1756-6649-12-1
                22257738
                10.1186/1756-6649-12-1
                Copyright ©2012 Ng et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Medical physics

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