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      Analysis of Early Postoperative Pain in the First and Second Knee in Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Controlled Study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          A retrospective analysis of early postoperative pain in the first and second knee in staged bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to provide a clinical evidence for the change of analgesic strategy.

          Methods

          From January 2009 to January 2013, 87 cases which meet the inclusion criterion were retrospectively reviewed. In stage TKA, the postoperative pain in the first and second knee at 24h, 48h, 72h after operation were compared using the visual analogue scale (VAS) score in the rest and maximum knee flexion position. The difference in pain scores (ΔVAS) was also compared between the second and first knee at different time intervals (less than 6 months, 6-12 months, more than 12 months).

          Results

          The VAS scores in the second knee were significantly higher than those in the first knee at 24h, 48h after surgery, but with no difference at 72h. The ΔVAS in the group of less than 6 months was significantly higher than of those more than 6 months, and there was no difference in ΔVAS between group of 6-12 months and group of more than 12 months.

          Conclusions

          Patient receiving staged bilateral TKA experiences greater postoperative pain within 48h after operation in the second knee than in the first knee, which can provide a clinical evidence to enhance the analgesic strategy in the second operation of the staged bilateral TKA. And for the management of postoperative pain in staged bilateral TKA, it’s better to recommend that the interval between two operations should be more than 6 months, which may reduce the postoperative pain in the second knee, improve patient satisfaction, and speed up patient‘s rehabilitation process.

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          Most cited references33

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          Neuronal plasticity: increasing the gain in pain.

          We describe those sensations that are unpleasant, intense, or distressing as painful. Pain is not homogeneous, however, and comprises three categories: physiological, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. Multiple mechanisms contribute, each of which is subject to or an expression of neural plasticity-the capacity of neurons to change their function, chemical profile, or structure. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for the contribution of plasticity in primary sensory and dorsal horn neurons to the pathogenesis of pain, identifying distinct forms of plasticity, which we term activation, modulation, and modification, that by increasing gain, elicit pain hypersensitivity.
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            Sensitization in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

            Pain is the dominant symptom in osteoarthritis (OA) and sensitization may contribute to the pain severity. This study investigated the role of sensitization in patients with painful knee OA by measuring (1) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs); (2) spreading sensitization; (3) temporal summation to repeated pressure pain stimulation; (4) pain responses after intramuscular hypertonic saline; and (5) pressure pain modulation by heterotopic descending noxious inhibitory control (DNIC). Forty-eight patients with different degrees of knee OA and twenty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects participated. The patients were separated into strong/severe (VAS>or=6) and mild/moderate pain (VAS<6) groups. PPTs were measured from the peripatellar region, tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor carpi radialis longus muscles before, during and after DNIC. Temporal summation to pressure was measured at the most painful site in the peripatellar region and over TA. Patients with severely painful OA pain have significantly lower PPT than controls. For all locations (knee, leg, and arm) significantly negative correlations between VAS and PPT were found (more pain, more sensitization). OA patients showed a significant facilitation of temporal summation from both the knee and TA and had significantly less DNIC as compared with controls. No correlations were found between standard radiological findings and clinical/experimental pain parameters. However, patients with lesions in the lateral tibiofemoral knee compartment had higher pain ratings compared with those with intercondylar and medial lesions. This study highlights the importance of central sensitization as an important manifestation in knee OA.
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              Randomized clinical trial of prehabilitation in colorectal surgery.

              'Prehabilitation' is an intervention to enhance functional capacity in anticipation of a forthcoming physiological stressor. In patients scheduled for colorectal surgery, the extent to which a structured prehabilitation regimen of stationary cycling and strengthening optimized recovery of functional walking capacity after surgery was compared with a simpler regimen of walking and breathing exercises. Some 112 patients (mean(s.d.) age 60(16) years) were randomized to either the structured bike and strengthening regimen (bike/strengthening group, 58 patients) or the simpler walking and breathing regimen (walk/breathing group, 54 patients). Randomization was done at the surgical planning visit; the mean time to surgery available for prehabilitation was 52 days; follow-up was for approximately 10 weeks after surgery. There were no differences between the groups in mean functional walking capacity over the prehabilitation period or at postoperative follow-up. The proportion showing an improvement in walking capacity was greater in the walk/breathing group than in the bike/strengthening group at the end of the prehabilitation period (47 versus 22 per cent respectively; P = 0.051) and after surgery (41 versus 11 per cent; P = 0.019). There was an unexpected benefit from the recommendation to increase walking and breathing, as designed for the control group. Adherence to recommendations was low. An examination of prehabilitation 'responders' would add valuable information. Copyright (c) 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 June 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 6
                : e0129973
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of orthopedics, PLA 455 Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Department of orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
                College of Medicine, TAIWAN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: YZ. Performed the experiments: JS. Analyzed the data: YZ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SY LL. Wrote the paper: JS YZ.

                Article
                PONE-D-14-54711
                10.1371/journal.pone.0129973
                4465893
                26068371
                39294417-27cf-4d9c-8999-1a88d32edef3
                Copyright @ 2015

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                History
                : 6 December 2014
                : 14 May 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper.

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