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      Second‐victim experience and support among nurses in mainland China

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          Implementing the RISE second victim support programme at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: a case study

          Background Second victims are healthcare workers who experience emotional distress following patient adverse events. Studies indicate the need to develop organisational support programmes for these workers. The RISE (Resilience In Stressful Events) programme was developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital to provide this support. Objective To describe the development of RISE and evaluate its initial feasibility and subsequent implementation. Programme phases included (1) developing the RISE programme, (2) recruiting and training peer responders, (3) pilot launch in the Department of Paediatrics and (4) hospital-wide implementation. Methods Mixed-methods study, including frequency counts of encounters, staff surveys and evaluations by RISE peer responders. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic characteristics and proportions of responses to categorical, Likert and ordinal scales. Qualitative analysis and coding were used to analyse open-ended responses from questionnaires and focus groups. Results A baseline staff survey found that most staff had experienced an unanticipated adverse event, and most would prefer peer support. A total of 119 calls, involving ∼500 individuals, were received in the first 52 months. The majority of calls were from nurses, and very few were related to medical errors (4%). Peer responders reported that the encounters were successful in 88% of cases and 83.3% reported meeting the caller's needs. Low awareness of the programme was a barrier to hospital-wide expansion. However, over the 4 years, the rate of calls increased from ∼1–4 calls per month. The programme evolved to accommodate requests for group support. Conclusions Hospital staff identified the need for a multidisciplinary peer support programme for second victims. Peer responders reported success in responding to calls, the majority of which were for adverse events rather than for medical errors. The low initial volume of calls emphasises the importance of promoting awareness of the value of emotional support and the availability of the programme.
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            The natural history of recovery for the healthcare provider "second victim" after adverse patient events.

            When patients experience unexpected events, some health professionals become "second victims". These care givers feel as though they have failed the patient, second guessing clinical skills, knowledge base and career choice. Although some information exists, a complete understanding of this phenomenon is essential to design and test supportive interventions that achieve a healthy recovery.
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              The Second Victim Experience and Support Tool: Validation of an Organizational Resource for Assessing Second Victim Effects and the Quality of Support Resources.

              Medical errors and unanticipated negative patient outcomes can damage the well-being of health care providers. These affected individuals, referred to as "second victims," can experience various psychological and physical symptoms. Support resources provided by health care organizations to prevent and reduce second victim-related harm are often inadequate. In this study, we present the development and psychometric evaluation of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST), a survey instrument that can assist health care organizations to implement and track the performance of second victim support resources.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Nursing Management
                J Nursing Management
                January 2022
                October 29 2021
                January 2022
                : 30
                : 1
                : 260-267
                [1 ]Department of Nursing The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University Guiyang China
                [2 ]Department of Neuropsychology Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University Wuhan China
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory The People's Hospital of Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture Aba China
                [4 ]Operating room Guizhou Medical University school of Stomatology Guiyang China
                © 2022




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