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      MT1-MMP-Mediated Cleavage of Decorin in Corneal Angiogenesis

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          Background/Aims: Decorin has been shown to have antiangiogenic properties. In this study, we evaluate the involvement of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a proangiogenic enzyme, in decorin cleavage in the cornea. Methods: MT1-MMP expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in keratocytes and immortalized corneal fibroblast cell lines. Corneal micropockets of bFGF were used to assess the expression of decorin and MT1-MMP. Western blotting was used to evaluate decorin degradation by MT1-MMP. Aortic ring tube formation assays were used to assay the inhibitory effect of decorin and stimulatory effect of MT1-MMP on vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Results: We show that MT1-MMP expression is upregulated following bFGF pellet implantation in the cornea in vivo, and that MT1-MMP cleaves decorin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Furthermore, the addition of MT1-MMP reduces the inhibitory effects of decorin on aortic ring tube formation in vitro. Cleavage of decorin by MT1-MMP-deficient corneal cell lysates is diminished relative to that by wild-type corneal cell lysates, and an MT1-MMP knockin restores decorin processing in vitro. Conclusion: The proangiogenic role of MT1-MMP in the cornea may be mediated, in part, by facilitated cleavage of corneal decorin.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Corneal neovascularization.

          Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a sight-threatening condition usually associated with inflammatory or infectious disorders of the ocular surface. It has been shown in the field of cancer angiogenesis research that a balance exists between angiogenic factors (such as fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-angiogenic molecules (such as angiostatin, endostatin, or pigment epithelium derived factor) in the cornea. Several inflammatory, infectious, degenerative, and traumatic disorders are associated with corneal NV, in which the balance is tilted towards angiogenesis. The pathogenesis of corneal NV may be influenced by matrix metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes. New medical and surgical treatments, including angiostatic steroids, nonsteroidal inflammatory agents, argon laser photocoagulation, and photodynamic therapy have been effective in animal models to inhibit corneal NV and transiently restore corneal "angiogenic privilege."
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            MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2 are essential for the invasive capacity of human mesenchymal stem cells: differential regulation by inflammatory cytokines.

            Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represent promising tools in various clinical applications, including the regeneration of injured tissues by endogenous or transplanted hMSCs. The molecular mechanisms, however, that control hMSC mobilization and homing which require invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) barriers are almost unknown. We have analyzed bone marrow-derivedhMSCs and detected strong expression and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2. The ability of hMSCs to traverse reconstituted human basement membranes was effectively blocked in the presence of synthetic MMP inhibitors. Detailed studies by RNA interference revealed that gene knock-down of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, or TIMP-2 substantially impaired hMSC invasion, whereas silencing of TIMP-1 enhanced cell migration, indicating opposing roles of both TIMPs in this process. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha up-regulated MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and/or MMP-9 production in these cells, resulting in a strong stimulation of chemotactic migration through ECM, whereas the chemokine SDF-1alpha exhibited minor effects on MMP/TIMP expression and cell invasion. Thus, induction of specific MMP activity in hMSCs by inflammatory cytokines promotes directed cell migration across reconstituted basement membranes in vitro providing a potential mechanism in hMSC recruitment and extravasation into injured tissues in vivo.
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              Membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase usurps tumor growth control imposed by the three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

              Cancer cells are able to proliferate at accelerated rates within the confines of a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) that is rich in type I collagen. The mechanisms used by tumor cells to circumvent endogenous antigrowth signals have yet to be clearly defined. We find that the matrix metalloproteinase, MT1-MMP, confers tumor cells with a distinct 3D growth advantage in vitro and in vivo. The replicative advantage conferred by MT1-MMP requires pericellular proteolysis of the ECM, as proliferation is fully suppressed when tumor cells are suspended in 3D gels of protease-resistant collagen. In the absence of proteolysis, tumor cells embedded in physiologically relevant ECM matrices are trapped in a compact, spherical configuration and unable to undergo changes in cell shape or cytoskeletal reorganization required for 3D growth. These observations identify MT1-MMP as a tumor-derived growth factor that regulates proliferation by controlling cell geometry within the confines of the 3D ECM.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2009
                30 June 2009
                : 46
                : 6
                : 541-550
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA; cDepartment of Biochemistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China
                226222 PMC3709025 J Vasc Res 2009;46:541–550
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 41, Pages: 10
                Research Paper


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