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      Plasma Pentosidine Levels Measured by a Newly Developed Method Using ELISA in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure


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          The plasma pentosidine levels in patients with renal disease were measured by a simple method which was established for plasma and urinary pentosidine determinations. The method, which can be completed within a few hours, involves pretreating plasma with proteolytic enzyme (pronase) and measuring the concentration of pentosidine in the sample by ELISA using antipentosidine antibodies. The prepared antibodies showed no cross-reaction with the raw materials for pentosidine synthesis or with compounds having similar structures. SDS-PAGE indicated that the antibodies had a high purity. The reaction of the antibodies and keyhole limpet hemocyanin-pentosidine in the competitive ELISA system was inhibited by free pentosidine. Excellent standard curves for pentosidine determination were obtained. In actual measurements of clinical samples from patients, a good correlation (r = 0.9356) was obtained between the values measured by ELISA and HPLC. The plasma pentosidine level in patients with renal disease correlated significantly with plasma creatinine, urea nitrogen, β<sub>2</sub>-microglobulin, and creatinine clearance, indicating its usefulness in evaluating the severity of renal disease. A significant elevation in plasma pentosidine levels was observed in mild renal dysfunction, whereas no significant increases in creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were detected, suggesting that the plasma pentosidine level is useful in the early diagnosis of beginning renal failure. In patients with chronic renal failure, no difference in plasma pentosidine levels was observed between diabetic nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis, while a significant correlation was observed with phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, suggesting the possibility that the plasma pentosidine level reflects injury due to oxidation. From these results, the quantitative measurement method developed by us is judged to be a superior innovation for measuring pentosidine in body fluids. The plasma pentosidine level may be useful for the early diagnosis of mild renal failure and to estimate the degree of the severity of renal diseases.

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          Increased pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product, in plasma and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its relation with inflammatory markers.

          Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end product (AGE) formed by combined processes of glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) between carbohydrate-derived carbonyl group and protein amino group. Recent studies demonstrated the increased pentosidine levels not only in diabetic patients with hyperglycemia but also in normoglycemic uremic patients due to increased oxidative stress. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a state of increased oxidative stress associated with chronic inflammation. This suggested an enhanced glycoxidation reaction and increased AGE levels in RA patients. In the present study, we therefore determined, by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay, the concentrations of pentosidine in plasma and synovial fluid from 22 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared their levels with those in 17 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), 26 diabetic patients, and 25 normal subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and markers of tissue destruction, metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), were also measured in the same samples. Pentosidine levels in plasma and synovial fluid from RA patients were significantly higher than those in OA patients, diabetic patients, and normal subjects. There was a significant correlation between the pentosidine levels in plasma and those in synovial fluid. Among markers of inflammation and matrix destruction, pentosidine levels in plasma from RA patients were correlated with the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, and platelet count. Multiple stepwise regression analysis reveals an independent influence of CRP on plasma pentosidine levels. In conclusion, pentosidine levels are significantly higher in plasma and synovial fluid from RA patients and may be useful as a biomarker of chronic inflammation in RA patients.
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            Autoxidation products of both carbohydrates and lipids are increased in uremic plasma: is there oxidative stress in uremia?

            Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) reactions, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including normoglycemic uremia. AGE research in uremia has focused on the accumulation of carbohydrate-derived adducts generated by the Maillard reaction. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that one AGE, the glycoxidation product carboxymethyllysine (CML), could be derived not only from carbohydrates but also from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vitro, raising the possibility that both carbohydrate and lipid autoxidation might be increased in uremia. To address this hypothesis, we applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography to measure protein adducts formed in uremic plasma by reactions between carbonyl compounds and protein amino groups: pentosidine derived from carbohydrate-derived carbonyls, malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine derived from lipid-derived carbonyls, and CML originating possibly from both sources. All three adducts were elevated in uremic plasma. Plasma CML levels were mainly (>95%) albumin bound. Their levels were not correlated with fructoselysine levels and were similar in diabetic and non-diabetic patients on hemodialysis, indicating that their increase was not driven by glucose. Pentosidine and MDA-lysine were also increased in plasma to the same extent in diabetic and non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Statistical analysis indicated that plasma levels of CML correlated weakly (P 0.5). These data suggest that the increased levels of AGEs in blood, and probably in tissues, reported in uremia implicate a broad derangement in non-enzymatic biochemistry involving alterations in autoxidation of both carbohydrates and lipids.
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              Determination of phospholipid hydroperoxides in human blood plasma by a chemiluminescence-HPLC assay


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                May 2002
                02 May 2002
                : 91
                : 1
                : 64-73
                Department of Nephrology and Blood Purification, Daini Hospital Medical Center, TokyoWomen’sMedicalUniversity, Tokyo,Japan
                57606 Nephron 2002;91:64–73
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 10, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/57606
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/57606
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Pentosidine,Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,Phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide,Chronic renal failure


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