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      Loneliness and Life Satisfaction Explained by Public-Space Use and Mobility Patterns

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          Abstract

          Previous research has shown that personal, neighborhood, and mobility characteristics could influence life satisfaction and loneliness of people and that exposure to public spaces, such as green spaces, may also affect the extent to which people feel lonely or satisfied with life. However, previous studies mainly focused on one of these effects, resulting in a lack of knowledge about the simultaneous effects of these characteristics on loneliness and life satisfaction. This study therefore aims to gain insights into how public-space use mediates the relations between personal, neighborhood, and mobility characteristics on the one hand and loneliness and life satisfaction on the other hand. Relationships were analyzed using a path analysis approach, based on a sample of 200 residents of three neighborhoods of the Dutch city ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The results showed that the influence of frequency of public-space use on life satisfaction and loneliness is limited. The effects of personal, neighborhood, and mobility characteristics on frequency of use of public space and on loneliness and life satisfaction were found to be significant. Age and activities of daily living (ADL) are significantly related to each other, and ADL was found to influence recreational and passive space use and loneliness and life satisfaction. Policymakers should, therefore, mainly focus on creating neighborhoods that are highly walkable and accessible, where green spaces and public-transport facilities are present, to promote physical activity among all residents.

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          Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation?

          To investigate the strength of the relation between the amount of green space in people's living environment and their perceived general health. This relation is analysed for different age and socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, it is analysed separately for urban and more rural areas, because the strength of the relation was expected to vary with urbanity. The study includes 250 782 people registered with 104 general practices who filled in a self administered form on sociodemographic background and perceived general health. The percentage of green space (urban green space, agricultural space, natural green space) within a one kilometre and three kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each household. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at three levels-that is, individual level, family level, and practice level-controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. The percentage of green space inside a one kilometre and a three kilometre radius had a significant relation to perceived general health. The relation was generally present at all degrees of urbanity. The overall relation is somewhat stronger for lower socioeconomic groups. Elderly, youth, and secondary educated people in large cities seem to benefit more from presence of green areas in their living environment than other groups in large cities. This research shows that the percentage of green space in people's living environment has a positive association with the perceived general health of residents. Green space seems to be more than just a luxury and consequently the development of green space should be allocated a more central position in spatial planning policy.
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            Influences on Loneliness in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis

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              Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion?

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                04 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 16
                : 21
                : 4282
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands; a.d.a.m.kemperman@ 123456tue.nl (A.K.); p.e.w.v.d.berg@ 123456tue.nl (P.v.d.B.); a.w.j.borgers@ 123456tue.nl (A.B.); p.j.h.j.v.d.waerden@ 123456tue.nl (P.v.d.W.)
                [2 ]Adviesbureau PLANTERRA, 3833GL Leusden, The Netherlands; gert.oosterhuis@ 123456planterra.nl (G.O.); marco.hommel@ 123456planterra.nl (M.H.)
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3716-7061
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1312-4913
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1712-5873
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0340-7629
                Article
                ijerph-16-04282
                10.3390/ijerph16214282
                6862387
                31690000
                3946f99e-b82e-4985-82a2-d3e9b4d5be86
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 11 October 2019
                : 02 November 2019
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                public space,neighborhood,loneliness,life satisfaction,mobility,elderly,path analysis
                Public health
                public space, neighborhood, loneliness, life satisfaction, mobility, elderly, path analysis

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