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      Electrocardiographic Gated 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT Immediately after Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Characterizes Reperfusion Success

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          Abstract

          Following an acute myocardial infarction, the size of the infarct and the resulting left ventricular volume and function are important predictors of mortality. Identifying patients with impaired tissue level perfusion after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for myocardial infarction therefore could have prognostic implications. To obtain combined measures of left ventricular perfusion, volumes and function we applied a gated myocardial perfusion imaging by <sup>99m</sup>Tc-sestamibi single photon emission computerized tomography to 19 patients immediately after revascularization by PCI and repeated this after 3 months. The results of the acute myocardial perfusion imaging significantly correlated to final infarct size, left ventricular volumes and function 3 months later. It is concluded that the method holds the potential for risk stratifying patients immediately after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction.

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          Most cited references 7

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          A comparison of immediate angioplasty with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. The Primary Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction Study Group.

          The success of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction is limited by bleeding complications, the impossibility of reperfusing all occluded coronary arteries, recurrent myocardial ischemia, and the relatively small number of patients who are appropriate candidates for this therapy. We hypothesized that these problems could be overcome by the use of immediate percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), without previous thrombolytic therapy. At 12 clinical centers, 395 patients who presented within 12 hours of the onset of myocardial infarction were treated with intravenous heparin and aspirin and then randomly assigned to undergo immediate PTCA (without previous thrombolytic therapy, 195 patients) or to receive intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, 200 patients) followed by conservative care. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed to assess ventricular function within 24 hours and at six weeks. Among the patients randomly assigned to PTCA, 90 percent underwent the procedure; the success rate was 97 percent, and no patient required emergency coronary-artery bypass surgery. The in-hospital mortality rates in the t-PA and PTCA groups were 6.5 and 2.6 percent, respectively (P = 0.06). In a post hoc analysis, the mortality rates in the subgroups classified as "not low risk" were 10.4 and 2.0 percent, respectively (P = 0.01). Reinfarction or death in the hospital occurred in 12.0 percent of the patients treated with t-PA and 5.1 percent of those treated with PTCA (P = 0.02). Intracranial bleeding occurred more frequently among patients who received t-PA than among those who underwent PTCA (2.0 vs. 0 percent, P = 0.05). The mean (+/- SD) ejection fractions at rest (53 +/- 13 vs. 53 +/- 13 percent) and during exercise (56 +/- 13 vs. 56 +/- 14 percent) were similar in the t-PA and PTCA groups at six weeks. By six months, reinfarction or death had occurred in 32 patients who received t-PA (16.8 percent) and 16 treated with PTCA (8.5 percent, P = 0.02). As compared with t-PA therapy for acute myocardial infarction, immediate PTCA reduced the combined occurrence of nonfatal reinfarction or death, was associated with a lower rate of intracranial hemorrhage, and resulted in similar left ventricular systolic function.
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            Comparison of gated single-photon emission computed tomography with magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of left ventricular function in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

            To perform a head-to-head comparison between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function (LV ejection fraction [LVEF], LV volumes, and regional wall motion) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, we studied 22 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and LV dysfunction. Multislice, multiphase echoplanar MRI was performed with Philips Gyroscan ACS-NT15. Image analysis was performed using the MASS software package to determine LV end-systolic volume, LV end-diastolic volume, and LVEF. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPECT software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The different parameters were compared using linear regression, and correlation coefficients were calculated. Regional wall motion was also determined from both techniques, according to a 13-segment model and a 3-point scoring system (from 1 = normokinesia to 3 = akinesia or dyskinesia). A summed wall motion score was also calculated for MRI and gated SPECT. Good correlations were found between MRI and gated SPECT for all parameters: (1) summed wall motion scoreMRI versus summed wall motion scoreSPECT: y = 0.74x + 8.0, r = 0.88, p <0.01; (2) LV end-systolic volumeMRI versus LV end-systolic volumeSPECT: y = 0.94x - 12.3, r = 0.87, p <0.01; (3) LV end-diastolic volumeMRI versus LV end-diastolic volumeSPECT: y = 0.93x - 18.4, r = 0.84, p <0.01; and (4) LVEFMRI versus LVEFSPECT: y = 0.97x + 0.68, r = 0.90, p <0.01. For regional wall motion, an exact agreement of 83% was found, with a kappa statistic of 0.77 (95% confidence intervals 0.71 to 0.83, SE 0.03), indicating essentially excellent agreement. Thus, close and significant correlations were observed for assessment of LVEF, LV volumes, and regional wall motion by MRI and gated SPECT in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.
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              Myocardial salvage after coronary stenting plus abciximab versus fibrinolysis plus abciximab in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomised trial.

              Patients with acute myocardial infarction might benefit from the addition of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors to fibrinolytic or mechanical reperfusion strategies. We compared two strategies, stenting and fibrinolysis, both combined with abciximab, in terms of their ability to salvage myocardium in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We enrolled 162 patients with acute myocardial infarction within 12 h of onset of symptoms, assigning 81 stenting plus abciximab and 81 alteplase plus abciximab. Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy was done at admission and after a median of 11 days to calculate initial perfusion defect, final infarct size, and degree of myocardial salvage. The primary endpoint was the salvage index (the ratio of the degree of myocardial salvage to the initial perfusion defect). Major adverse clinical events within 6 months from randomisation were also compared between the two treatments. Paired scintigraphic measurements were available for 70 patients in the stent group and 71 in the alteplase group. Stenting was associated with greater myocardial salvage than alteplase (median 13.6% [IQR 5.9-23.9] vs 8.0% [2.5-16.0] of the left ventricle; p=0.007). Salvage index was greater in the stent group than in the alteplase group (median 0.60 [0.37-0.82] vs 0.41 [0.13-0.58]; p=0.001). The 6-month mortality rate was 5% (four deaths) in the stent group and 9% (seven deaths) in the alteplase group (relative risk 0.56 [95% CI 0.17-1.88]; p=0.35). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, a reperfusion strategy based on stenting with abciximab produced more myocardial salvage than the combination of fibrinolysis plus abciximab. Larger studies are needed to assess whether these effects translate into clinical benefit.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                July 2003
                10 July 2003
                : 99
                : 4
                : 198-204
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cardiology and bDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
                Article
                71249 Cardiology 2003;99:198–204
                10.1159/000071249
                12845246
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 33, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Coronary Care

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