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      Genome-wide association study of Hirschsprung disease detects a novel low-frequency variant at the RET locus

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          Most cited references 21

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          Genotype, haplotype and copy-number variation in worldwide human populations.

          Genome-wide patterns of variation across individuals provide a powerful source of data for uncovering the history of migration, range expansion, and adaptation of the human species. However, high-resolution surveys of variation in genotype, haplotype and copy number have generally focused on a small number of population groups. Here we report the analysis of high-quality genotypes at 525,910 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 396 copy-number-variable loci in a worldwide sample of 29 populations. Analysis of SNP genotypes yields strongly supported fine-scale inferences about population structure. Increasing linkage disequilibrium is observed with increasing geographic distance from Africa, as expected under a serial founder effect for the out-of-Africa spread of human populations. New approaches for haplotype analysis produce inferences about population structure that complement results based on unphased SNPs. Despite a difference from SNPs in the frequency spectrum of the copy-number variants (CNVs) detected--including a comparatively large number of CNVs in previously unexamined populations from Oceania and the Americas--the global distribution of CNVs largely accords with population structure analyses for SNP data sets of similar size. Our results produce new inferences about inter-population variation, support the utility of CNVs in human population-genetic research, and serve as a genomic resource for human-genetic studies in diverse worldwide populations.
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            Efficient haplotype matching and storage using the positional Burrows–Wheeler transform (PBWT)

            Motivation: Over the last few years, methods based on suffix arrays using the Burrows–Wheeler Transform have been widely used for DNA sequence read matching and assembly. These provide very fast search algorithms, linear in the search pattern size, on a highly compressible representation of the dataset being searched. Meanwhile, algorithmic development for genotype data has concentrated on statistical methods for phasing and imputation, based on probabilistic matching to hidden Markov model representations of the reference data, which while powerful are much less computationally efficient. Here a theory of haplotype matching using suffix array ideas is developed, which should scale too much larger datasets than those currently handled by genotype algorithms. Results: Given M sequences with N bi-allelic variable sites, an O(NM) algorithm to derive a representation of the data based on positional prefix arrays is given, which is termed the positional Burrows–Wheeler transform (PBWT). On large datasets this compresses with run-length encoding by more than a factor of a hundred smaller than using gzip on the raw data. Using this representation a method is given to find all maximal haplotype matches within the set in O(NM) time rather than O(NM 2) as expected from naive pairwise comparison, and also a fast algorithm, empirically independent of M given sufficient memory for indexes, to find maximal matches between a new sequence and the set. The discussion includes some proposals about how these approaches could be used for imputation and phasing. Availability: http://github.com/richarddurbin/pbwt Contact: richard.durbin@sanger.ac.uk
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              A common sex-dependent mutation in a RET enhancer underlies Hirschsprung disease risk.

              The identification of common variants that contribute to the genesis of human inherited disorders remains a significant challenge. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a multifactorial, non-mendelian disorder in which rare high-penetrance coding sequence mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET contribute to risk in combination with mutations at other genes. We have used family-based association studies to identify a disease interval, and integrated this with comparative and functional genomic analysis to prioritize conserved and functional elements within which mutations can be sought. We now show that a common non-coding RET variant within a conserved enhancer-like sequence in intron 1 is significantly associated with HSCR susceptibility and makes a 20-fold greater contribution to risk than rare alleles do. This mutation reduces in vitro enhancer activity markedly, has low penetrance, has different genetic effects in males and females, and explains several features of the complex inheritance pattern of HSCR. Thus, common low-penetrance variants, identified by association studies, can underlie both common and rare diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Human Genetics
                Eur J Hum Genet
                Springer Nature
                1018-4813
                1476-5438
                January 29 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41431-017-0053-7
                29379196
                © 2018

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