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      The V-type H +-ATPase in vesicular trafficking: targeting, regulation and function

      1 , 2

      Current Opinion in Cell Biology

      Elsevier Ltd.

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          Abstract

          Vacuolar-type H +-ATPase (V-ATPase)-driven proton pumping and organellar acidification is essential for vesicular trafficking along both the exocytotic and endocytotic pathways of eukaryotic cells. Deficient function of V-ATPase and defects of vesicular acidification have been recently recognized as important mechanisms in a variety of human diseases and are emerging as potential therapeutic targets. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of function, regulation, and the cell biological role of V-ATPase. Here, we will review these studies with emphasis on novel direct roles of V-ATPase in the regulation of vesicular trafficking events.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Ceramide triggers budding of exosome vesicles into multivesicular endosomes.

          Intraluminal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes are either sorted for cargo degradation into lysosomes or secreted as exosomes into the extracellular milieu. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of membrane into the different populations of intraluminal vesicles are unknown. Here, we find that cargo is segregated into distinct subdomains on the endosomal membrane and that the transfer of exosome-associated domains into the lumen of the endosome did not depend on the function of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery, but required the sphingolipid ceramide. Purified exosomes were enriched in ceramide, and the release of exosomes was reduced after the inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinases. These results establish a pathway in intraendosomal membrane transport and exosome formation.
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            The mechanisms of vesicle budding and fusion.

            Genetic and biochemical analyses of the secretory pathway have produced a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms involved in selective cargo transport between organelles. This transport occurs by means of vesicular intermediates that bud from a donor compartment and fuse with an acceptor compartment. Vesicle budding and cargo selection are mediated by protein coats, while vesicle targeting and fusion depend on a machinery that includes the SNARE proteins. Precise regulation of these two aspects of vesicular transport ensures efficient cargo transfer while preserving organelle identity.
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              Vacuolar ATPases: rotary proton pumps in physiology and pathophysiology.

              The acidity of intracellular compartments and the extracellular environment is crucial to various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, protein degradation, bone resorption and sperm maturation. At the heart of regulating acidity are the vacuolar (V-)ATPases--large, multisubunit complexes that function as ATP-driven proton pumps. Their activity is controlled by regulating the assembly of the V-ATPase complex or by the dynamic regulation of V-ATPase expression on membrane surfaces. The V-ATPases have been implicated in a number of diseases and, coupled with their complex isoform composition, represent attractive and potentially highly specific drug targets.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Curr Opin Cell Biol
                Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
                Current Opinion in Cell Biology
                Elsevier Ltd.
                0955-0674
                1879-0410
                27 May 2008
                August 2008
                27 May 2008
                : 20
                : 4
                : 415-426
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Program in Membrane Biology, Center for Systems Biology, Simches Research Center, CPZN No. 8212, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694, Japan
                Article
                S0955-0674(08)00056-2
                10.1016/j.ceb.2008.03.015
                7111286
                18511251
                Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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                Cell biology

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