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      Long-term summer temperature variations in the Pyrenees

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      Climate Dynamics

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 57

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          Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: A new data set from 1850

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            European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500.

            Multiproxy reconstructions of monthly and seasonal surface temperature fields for Europe back to 1500 show that the late 20th- and early 21st-century European climate is very likely (>95% confidence level) warmer than that of any time during the past 500 years. This agrees with findings for the entire Northern Hemisphere. European winter average temperatures during the period 1500 to 1900 were reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C (0.25 degrees C for annual mean temperatures) compared to the 20th century. Summer temperatures did not experience systematic century-scale cooling relative to present conditions. The coldest European winter was 1708/1709; 2003 was by far the hottest summer.
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              Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Climate Dynamics
                Clim Dyn
                Springer Nature
                0930-7575
                1432-0894
                November 2008
                March 2008
                : 31
                : 6
                : 615-631
                Article
                10.1007/s00382-008-0390-x
                © 2008
                Product

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