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      Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease with Erythropoietin in Chronic Dialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Recombinant human erythropoietin is widely used in chronic dialysis patients. However, the long-term effect, especially on the incidence of cardiovascular disease, has not been critically evaluated. We observed the annual incidence of stroke and acute myocardial infarction from April 1988 through March 1993 in Okinawa, Japan. Until April 1990, erythropoietin was not generally used. Therefore, we have two periods: pre-erythropoietin, April 1988 through March 1990, and post-erythropoietin, April 1990 through March 1993. Two thousand one hundred and sixteen patients (1,219 males and 897 females) were on chronic dialysis during the study period by March 31, 1993. Every case of stroke and acute myocardial infarction during the study period was registered. The odds ratio was calculated using the data of the general population in each sex and age class obtained in the same area. A total of 86 cases of stroke and 15 cases of acute myocardial infarction were registered during the study period. The annual incidence, per 1,000 patient-years, of stroke was 12.5 (1988), 10.5 (1989), 12.7 (1990), 14.0 (1991), and 17.5 (1992). The incidence of stroke was increased in the post-erythropoietin period compared to the pre-erythropoietin period, odds ratio 1.22 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.06-1.41, p < 0.01). The annual incidence of acute myocardial infarction was 1.0 (1988), 1.8 (1989), 0.8 (1990), 2.9 (1991) and 4.7 (1992). The incidence of acute myocardial infarction was increased significantly in the post-erythropoietin period compared to the pre-erythropoietin period, odds ratio 1.87 (95% CI 1.66-2.10, p < 0.01). The odds ratio of stroke to the general population was 4.25 (95% CI 3.10-5.82) in the pre-erythropoietin and 4.58 (95% CI 2.14-9.80) in the post-erythropoietin period. In acute myocardial infarction, it was 2.98 (95% CI 2.84-3.12) and 3.81 (95% CI 3.18-4.56). The odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction was significantly increased (p < 0.01). The introduction of erythropoietin was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially acute myocardial infarction. Erythropoietin may unmask the sclerotic lesion in chronic dialysis patients.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1996
          1996
          18 December 2008
          : 72
          : 1
          : 30-36
          Affiliations
          aThird Department of Internal Medicine and Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine and bUrology, University of The Ryukyus, cOkinawa Kyodo Hospital, dOkinawa Chubu Hospital, eUrasoe Sogo Hospital, fNaha City Hospital, gOkinawa Dai-ichi Hospital hMakiminato Chuo Hospital, and iOkinawa Prefectural Naha Hospital Okinawa, Japan
          Article
          188803 Nephron 1996;72:30–36
          10.1159/000188803
          8903858
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 7
          Categories
          Original Paper

          Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

          Stroke, Myocardial infarction, Dialysis patients, Erythropoietin

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