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      Cycling on a Bike Desk Positively Influences Cognitive Performance

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Cycling desks as a means to reduce sedentary time in the office has gained interest as excessive sitting has been associated with several health risks. However, the question rises if people will still be as efficient in performing their desk-based office work when combining this with stationary cycling. Therefore, the effect of cycling at 30% Wmax on typing, cognitive performance and brain activity was investigated.

          Methods

          After two familiarisation sessions, 23 participants performed a test battery [typing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT), Stroop test and Rosvold continuous performance test (RCPT)] with electroencephalography recording while cycling and sitting on a conventional chair.

          Results

          Typing performance, performance on the RAVLT and accuracy on the Stroop test and the RCPT did not differ between conditions. Reaction times on the Stroop test and the RCPT were shorter while cycling relative to sitting (p < 0.05). N200, P300, N450 and conflict SP latency and amplitude on the Stroop test and N200 and P300 on the RCPT did not differ between conditions.

          Conclusions

          This study showed that typing performance and short-term memory are not deteriorated when people cycle at 30% Wmax. Furthermore, cycling had a positive effect on response speed across tasks requiring variable amounts of attention and inhibition.

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          Most cited references29

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          Influence of cognitive control and mismatch on the N2 component of the ERP: a review.

          Recent years have seen an explosion of research on the N2 component of the event-related potential, a negative wave peaking between 200 and 350 ms after stimulus onset. This research has focused on the influence of "cognitive control," a concept that covers strategic monitoring and control of motor responses. However, rich research traditions focus on attention and novelty or mismatch as determinants of N2 amplitude. We focus on paradigms that elicit N2 components with an anterior scalp distribution, namely, cognitive control, novelty, and sequential matching, and argue that the anterior N2 should be divided into separate control- and mismatch-related subcomponents. We also argue that the oddball N2 belongs in the family of attention-related N2 components that, in the visual modality, have a posterior scalp distribution. We focus on the visual modality for which components with frontocentral and more posterior scalp distributions can be readily distinguished.
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            The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis.

            The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance were examined using meta-analytic techniques. The overall mean effect size was dependent on the timing of cognitive assessment. During exercise, cognitive task performance was impaired by a mean effect of -0.14. However, impairments were only observed during the first 20min of exercise. Otherwise, exercise-induced arousal enhanced performance on tasks that involved rapid decisions and automatized behaviors. Following exercise, cognitive task performance improved by a mean effect of 0.20. Arousal continued to facilitate speeded mental processes and also enhanced memory storage and retrieval. Positive effects were observed following exercise regardless of whether the study protocol was designed to measure the effects of steady-state exercise, fatiguing exercise, or the inverted-U hypothesis. Finally, cognitive performance was affected differentially by exercise mode. Cycling was associated with enhanced performance during and after exercise, whereas treadmill running led to impaired performance during exercise and a small improvement in performance following exercise. These results are indicative of the complex relation between exercise and cognition. Cognitive performance may be enhanced or impaired depending on when it is measured, the type of cognitive task selected, and the type of exercise performed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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              Event-related potentials in clinical research: guidelines for eliciting, recording, and quantifying mismatch negativity, P300, and N400.

              This paper describes recommended methods for the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in clinical research and reviews applications to a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Techniques are presented for eliciting, recording, and quantifying three major cognitive components with confirmed clinical utility: mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and N400. Also highlighted are applications of each of the components as methods of investigating central nervous system pathology. The guidelines are intended to assist investigators who use ERPs in clinical research, in an effort to provide clear and concise recommendations and thereby to standardize methodology and facilitate comparability of data across laboratories.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2016
                2 November 2016
                : 11
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Human Physiology Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
                [2 ]Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, Elon, United States of America
                [3 ]School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia
                University of Akron, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: TT RM.

                • Data curation: TT.

                • Formal analysis: TT KDP JVC LD.

                • Funding acquisition: RM.

                • Investigation: TT.

                • Methodology: TT BdG SB KDP LD JVC RM.

                • Project administration: TT.

                • Resources: RM.

                • Software: TT.

                • Supervision: RM.

                • Validation: BdG SB RM.

                • Visualization: TT.

                • Writing – original draft: TT.

                • Writing – review & editing: RM BdG SB.

                ‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-24201
                10.1371/journal.pone.0165510
                5091773
                27806079
                3967565f-d91b-4729-9a23-b0e039bd6510
                © 2016 Torbeyns et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 14
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
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