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      Double indexing overcomes inaccuracies in multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform

      * , , *

      Nucleic Acids Research

      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          Due to the increasing throughput of current DNA sequencing instruments, sample multiplexing is necessary for making economical use of available sequencing capacities. A widely used multiplexing strategy for the Illumina Genome Analyzer utilizes sample-specific indexes, which are embedded in one of the library adapters. However, this and similar multiplex approaches come with a risk of sample misidentification. By introducing indexes into both library adapters (double indexing), we have developed a method that reveals the rate of sample misidentification within current multiplex sequencing experiments. With ~0.3% these rates are orders of magnitude higher than expected and may severely confound applications in cancer genomics and other fields requiring accurate detection of rare variants. We identified the occurrence of mixed clusters on the flow as the predominant source of error. The accuracy of sample identification is further impaired if indexed oligonucleotides are cross-contaminated or if indexed libraries are amplified in bulk. Double-indexing eliminates these problems and increases both the scope and accuracy of multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Patterns of somatic mutation in human cancer genomes.

          Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead to the discovery of many additional cancer genes. Here we report more than 1,000 somatic mutations found in 274 megabases (Mb) of DNA corresponding to the coding exons of 518 protein kinase genes in 210 diverse human cancers. There was substantial variation in the number and pattern of mutations in individual cancers reflecting different exposures, DNA repair defects and cellular origins. Most somatic mutations are likely to be 'passengers' that do not contribute to oncogenesis. However, there was evidence for 'driver' mutations contributing to the development of the cancers studied in approximately 120 genes. Systematic sequencing of cancer genomes therefore reveals the evolutionary diversity of cancers and implicates a larger repertoire of cancer genes than previously anticipated.
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            Target-enrichment strategies for next-generation sequencing.

            We have not yet reached a point at which routine sequencing of large numbers of whole eukaryotic genomes is feasible, and so it is often necessary to select genomic regions of interest and to enrich these regions before sequencing. There are several enrichment approaches, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Here we describe our experiences with the leading target-enrichment technologies, the optimizations that we have performed and typical results that can be obtained using each. We also provide detailed protocols for each technology so that end users can find the best compromise between sensitivity, specificity and uniformity for their particular project.
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              Accurate multiplex polony sequencing of an evolved bacterial genome.

              We describe a DNA sequencing technology in which a commonly available, inexpensive epifluorescence microscope is converted to rapid nonelectrophoretic DNA sequencing automation. We apply this technology to resequence an evolved strain of Escherichia coli at less than one error per million consensus bases. A cell-free, mate-paired library provided single DNA molecules that were amplified in parallel to 1-micrometer beads by emulsion polymerase chain reaction. Millions of beads were immobilized in a polyacrylamide gel and subjected to automated cycles of sequencing by ligation and four-color imaging. Cost per base was roughly one-ninth as much as that of conventional sequencing. Our protocols were implemented with off-the-shelf instrumentation and reagents.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                January 2012
                January 2012
                21 October 2011
                21 October 2011
                : 40
                : 1
                : e3
                Affiliations
                Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Evolutionary Genetics, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +49 341 3550 500; Fax: +49 341 3550 555; Email: martin.kircher@ 123456eva.mpg.de
                Correspondence may also be addressed to Matthias Meyer. Tel: +49 341 3550 509; Fax: +49 341 3550 555; Email: mmeyer@ 123456eva.mpg.de
                Article
                gkr771
                10.1093/nar/gkr771
                3245947
                22021376
                © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Methods Online

                Genetics

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