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      The potential role of biomarkers in predicting gestational diabetes


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          Gestational diabetes (GD) is a frequent complication during pregnancy and is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. It is suggested that a disturbing environment for the foetus, such as impaired glucose metabolism during intrauterine life, may result in enduring epigenetic changes leading to increased disease risk in adult life. Hence, early prediction of GD is vital. Current risk prediction models are based on maternal and clinical parameters, lacking a strong predictive value. Adipokines are mainly produced by adipocytes and suggested to be a link between obesity and its cardiovascular complications. Various adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin and TNF&, have shown to be dysregulated in GD. This review aims to outline biomarkers potentially associated with the pathophysiology of GD and discuss the role of integrating predictive biomarkers in current clinical risk prediction models, in order to enhance the identification of those at risk.

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          Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.

          White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Furthermore, cross-talk between lymphocytes and adipocytes can lead to immune regulation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others. Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. In contrast, reduced leptin levels might predispose to increased susceptibility to infection caused by reduced T-cell responses in malnourished individuals. Altered adipokine levels have been observed in a variety of inflammatory conditions, although their pathogenic role has not been completely clarified.
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            Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

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              High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia.

              The role of intrauterine hyperglycemia and future risk of type 2 diabetes in human offspring is debated. We studied glucose tolerance in adult offspring of women with either gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, taking the impact of both intrauterine hyperglycemia and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes into account. The glucose tolerance status following a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was evaluated in 597 subjects, primarily Caucasians, aged 18-27 years. They were subdivided into four groups according to maternal glucose metabolism during pregnancy and genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes: 1) offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (O-GDM), 2) offspring of genetically predisposed women with a normal OGTT (O-NoGDM), 3) offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (O-type 1), and 4) offspring of women from the background population (O-BP). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) in the four groups was 21, 12, 11, and 4%, respectively. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes were 7.76 (95% CI 2.58-23.39) in O-GDM and 4.02 (1.31-12.33) in O-type 1 compared with O-BP. In O-type 1, the risk of type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes was significantly associated with elevated maternal blood glucose in late pregnancy: OR 1.41 (1.04-1.91) per mmol/l. A hyperglycemic intrauterine environment appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes in adult offspring of primarily Caucasian women with either diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes during pregnancy.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                September 2016
                01 September 2016
                : 5
                : 5
                : R26-R34
                [1 ]Department of Endocrinology Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Endocrinology Erasmus University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to H S Brink; Email: BrinkH@ 123456maasstadziekenhuis.nl
                © 2016 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 28 June 2016
                : 1 August 2016

                adipokines,biomarkers,gestational diabetes,prediction
                adipokines, biomarkers, gestational diabetes, prediction


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