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      Dysregulated Redox Regulation Contributes to Nuclear EGFR Localization and Pathogenicity in Lung Cancer

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          Abstract

          Lung cancers are frequently characterized by inappropriate activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling and epigenetic silencing of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme DUOX1, both potentially contributing to worse prognosis. Based on previous findings linking DUOX1 with redox-dependent EGFR activation, the present studies were designed to evaluate whether DUOX1 silencing in lung cancers may be responsible for altered EGFR regulation. In contrast to normal epithelial cells, EGF stimulation of lung cancer cell lines that lack DUOX1 promotes EGF-induced EGFR internalization and nuclear localization, associated with induction of EGFR-regulated genes and related tumorigenic outcomes. Each of these outcomes could be reversed by overexpression of DUOX1 or enhanced by shRNA-dependent DUOX1 silencing. EGF-induced nuclear EGFR localization in DUOX1-deficient lung cancer cells was associated with altered dynamics of cysteine oxidation of EGFR, and an overall reduction of EGFR cysteines. These various outcomes could also be attenuated by silencing of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), a mediator of metabolic alterations and drug resistance in various cancers, and a regulator of cysteine oxidation. Collectively, our findings indicate DUOX1 deficiency in lung cancers promotes dysregulated EGFR signaling and enhanced GSTP1-mediated turnover of EGFR cysteine oxidation, which result in enhanced nuclear EGFR localization and tumorigenic properties.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Acquired resistance to TKIs in solid tumours: learning from lung cancer.

          The use of advanced molecular profiling to direct the use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has revolutionized the treatment of this disease. However, acquired resistance, defined as progression after initial benefit, to targeted therapies inevitably occurs. This Review explores breakthroughs in the understanding and treatment of acquired resistance in NSCLC, focusing on EGFR mutant and ALK rearrangement-positive disease, which may be relevant across multiple different solid malignancies with oncogene-addicted subtypes. Mechanisms of acquired resistance may be pharmacological (that is, failure of delivery of the drug to its target) or biological, resulting from evolutionary selection on molecularly diverse tumours. A number of clinical approaches can maintain control of the disease in the acquired resistance setting, including the use of radiation to treat isolated areas of progression and adding or switching to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Furthermore, novel approaches that have already proven successful include the development of second-generation and third-generation inhibitors and the combination of some of these inhibitors with antibodies directed against the same target. With our increased understanding of the spectrum of acquired resistance, major changes in how we conduct clinical research in this setting are now underway.
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            c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor on Tyr845 and Tyr1101 is associated with modulation of receptor function.

            Accumulating evidence indicates that interactions between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Src may contribute to an aggressive phenotype in multiple human tumors. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that murine fibroblasts which overexpress both these tyrosine kinases display synergistic increases in DNA synthesis, soft agar growth, and tumor formation in nude mice, and increased phosphorylation of the receptor substrates Shc and phospholipase gamma as compared with single overexpressors. These parameters correlated with the ability of c-Src and EGFR to form an EGF-dependent heterocomplex in vivo. Here we provide evidence that association between c-Src and EGFR can occur directly, as shown by receptor overlay experiments, and that it results in the appearance of two novel tyrosine phosphorylations on the receptor that are seen both in vitro and in vivo following EGF stimulation. Edman degradation analyses and co-migration of synthetic peptides with EGFR-derived tryptic phosphopeptides identify these sites as Tyr845 and Tyr1101. Tyr1101 lies within the carboxyl-terminal region of the EGFR among sites of receptor autophosphorylation, while Tyr845 resides in the catalytic domain, in a position analogous to Tyr416 of c-Src. Phosphorylation of Tyr416 and homologous residues in other tyrosine kinase receptors has been shown to be required for or to increase catalytic activity, suggesting that c-Src can influence EGFR activity by mediating phosphorylation of Tyr845. Indeed, EGF-induced phosphorylation of Tyr845 was increased in MDA468 human breast cancer cells engineered to overexpress c-Src as compared with parental MDA 468 cells. Furthermore, transient expression of a Y845F variant EGFR in murine fibroblasts resulted in an ablation of EGF-induced DNA synthesis to nonstimulated levels. Together, these data support the hypothesis that c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr845 is involved in regulation of receptor function, as well as in tumor progression.
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              Nuclear EGFR contributes to acquired resistance to cetuximab.

              Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the etiology of several human cancers. Cetuximab is an EGFR-blocking antibody that has been approved for the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic colorectal cancer. Previous reports have shown that EGFR translocation to the nucleus is associated with cell proliferation. Here we investigated mechanisms of acquired resistance to cetuximab using a model derived from the non-small cell lung cancer line H226. We demonstrated that cetuximab-resistant cells overexpress HER family ligands including epidermal growth factor (EGF), amphiregulin, heparin-binding EGF and beta-cellulin. Overexpression of these ligands is associated with the nuclear translocation of the EGFR and this process was mediated by the Src family kinases (SFK). Treatment of cetuximab-resistant cells with the SFK inhibitor, dasatinib, resulted in loss of nuclear EGFR, increased membrane expression of the EGFR and resensitization to cetuximab. In addition, expression of a nuclear localization sequence-tagged EGFR in cetuximab-sensitive cells increased resistance to cetuximab both in vitro and in mouse xenografts. Collectively, these data suggest that nuclear expression of EGFR may be an important molecular determinant of resistance to cetuximab therapy and provides a rationale for investigating nuclear EGFR as a biomarker for cetuximab response. Further, these data suggest a rationale for the design of clinical trials that examine the value of treating patients with cetuximab-resistant tumors with inhibitors of SFKs in combination with cetuximab.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                albert.van-der-vliet@uvm.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                19 March 2019
                19 March 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7689, GRID grid.59062.38, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Robert Larner, M.D. College of Medicine, University of Vermont, ; Burlington, VT 05405 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000086837370, GRID grid.214458.e, Present Address: Rogel Cancer Center, Department of Internal Medicine Hematology-Oncology, , University of Michigan, ; Ann Arbor, MI USA
                [3 ]Present Address: Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 USA
                Article
                41395
                10.1038/s41598-019-41395-8
                6425021
                30890751
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000002, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | National Institutes of Health (NIH);
                Award ID: HL076122
                Award ID: HL142221
                Award ID: HL129706
                Award ID: CA219156
                Award ID: R35 HL135828
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100006955, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health (OER);
                Award ID: HL085646
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000050, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI);
                Award ID: HL085646
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Lake Champlain Cancer Research Organization; J. Walter Juckett Scholarship Award.
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