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      The Burden of Premature Mortality Related to Suicide in West Azerbaijan From 2014 to 2016 : A Death Registry System-Based Study

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          Abstract. Background: Examining the premature death rate represents the first step in estimating the overall burden of disease, reflecting a full picture of how different causes affect population health and providing a way of monitoring and evaluating population health. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the burden of premature mortality from suicides in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran from 2014 to 2016. Method: To calculate years of potential life lost (YPLL), we categorized all methods of suicide, then we subtracted actual age at death by suicide from the relevant age-based life table produced by the World Health Organization in 2015, after which we added the results for each type of suicide in a particular year. Results: We analyzed 638 suicides. Overall, during the 3-year study period for both sexes, the greatest sources of premature death among all methods of suicide were: hanging, strangulation, and suffocation (X70); smoke, fire, and flames (X76); and poisoning by narcotics and psychodysleptics (X62). Limitations: Limitations of the study include a lack of accurate, systematic recording and reporting of all cases of suicide, which might lead to measurement bias. Conclusion: This study identified and highlighted the most common methods of suicide in West Azerbaijan.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Global suicide rates among young people aged 15-19.

          Global suicide rates among adolescents in the 15-19 age group, according to the latest World Health Organization (WHO) Mortality Database, were examined. Data for this age group were available from 90 countries (in some cases areas) out of the 130 WHO member states. The mean suicide rate for this age group, based on data available for the latest year, was 7.4/100,000. Suicide rates were higher in males (10.5) than in females (4.1). This applies in almost all countries. The exceptions are China, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador and Sri Lanka, where the female suicide rate was higher than the male. In the 90 countries (areas) studied, suicide was the fourth leading cause of death among young males and the third for young females. Of the 132,423 deaths of young people in the 90 countries, suicide accounted for 9.1%. The trend of suicide rates from 26 countries (areas) with data available during the period 1965-1999 was also studied. A rising trend of suicide in young males was observed. This was particularly marked in the years before 1980 and in countries outside Europe. The WHO database is the largest of its kind and, indeed, the only information source that can currently be used for analysis of global mortality due to suicide. Methodological limitations are discussed.
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            Best Practice Elements of Multilevel Suicide Prevention Strategies

            Background: Evidence-based best practices for incorporation into an optimal multilevel intervention for suicide prevention should be identifiable in the literature. Aims: To identify effective interventions for the prevention of suicidal behavior. Methods: Review of systematic reviews found in the Pubmed, Cochrane, and DARE databases. Steps include risk-of-bias assessment, data extraction, summarization of best practices, and identification of synergistic potentials of such practices in multilevel approaches. Results: Six relevant systematic reviews were found. Best practices identified as effective were as follows: training general practitioners (GPs) to recognize and treat depression and suicidality, improving accessibility of care for at-risk people, and restricting access to means of suicide. Although no outcomes were reported for multilevel interventions or for synergistic effects of multiple interventions applied together, indirect support was found for possible synergies in particular combinations of interventions within multilevel strategies. Conclusions: A number of evidence-based best practices for the prevention of suicide and suicide attempts were identified. Research is needed on the nature and extent of potential synergistic effects of various preventive activities within multilevel interventions.
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              Methods of choice in completed suicides: gender differences and review of literature.

              Suicide is an important public health hazard worldwide. A 4-year retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2003 was conducted to identify the favored methods in realized suicides among males and females in the west coastal region of India. During the study period, a total of 539 cases of suicidal deaths were autopsied. Males were predominantly affected (male: female-1.9:1). The age of the victims ranged from 13 to 90 years in males (mean = 40.1 years, median = 37.0 years) and 15 to 85 years in females (mean = 36.6 years, median = 32.0 years). Most favored method of suicide amongst males and females was hanging (36.9%, n = 199) followed by poisoning (34.7%, n = 187). Male dominance was apparent for each method of suicide except for self-immolation. Males were relatively more likely to use hanging and poisoning while females were more likely to prefer drowning and self-immolation as methods of suicide. Relatively younger females (mean = 33.0 years, median = 32.0 years) preferred hanging as a method of suicide when compared to males (mean = 42.4 years, median = 40.0 years). Among females, significantly younger females resorted to hanging when compared to older females who preferred drowning. On investigating the various theories proposed for choice of suicide methods in males and females in different regions we conclude that preference of method of suicide in men and women is complexly determined. In this region, availability, accessibility, popularity, and socioacceptability seem to be the major determinants in the choice of methods among males and females rather than violence associated and lethality of the method. Females were as likely to use lethal and violent methods as males in this region.

                Author and article information

                Hogrefe Publishing
                March 19, 2019
                : 40
                : 6
                : 407-412
                [ 1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
                [ 2 ]Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
                Self URI (journal-page):
                Funding: This study was supported by grant no. 2100 and funding from the Urmia University of Medical Sciences. The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
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