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      Long-Term Survival after Development of Acute Myocardial Infarction Has Improved after a More Widespread Use of Thrombolysis and Aspirin

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          We describe the mortality during the subsequent 5 years after development of acute myocardial infarction prior to and after the introduction of a more widespread use of thrombolytic agents and aspirin in the community of Göteborg. During period I, 4% received thrombolysis as compared with 32% during period II (p < 0.0001). The corresponding figures for prescription of aspirin at discharge were 14 and 84%, respectively (p < 0.0001). The overall 5-year mortality was 48% during period I and 46% during period II (p = 0.09). However, the age-adjusted mortality during period II was significantly reduced (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.78–0.95; p = 0.004). There was no significant interaction between improvement in survival and sex or any other parameter reflecting patients’ clinical history.

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          Recent trends in acute coronary heart disease--mortality, morbidity, medical care, and risk factors. The Minnesota Heart Survey Investigators.

          Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) has declined in the United States since the late 1960s. To understand the reasons for the decline during the period form 1985 to 1990, we examined trends in mortality and morbidity due to CHD, medical care, and risk factors for CHD in a large metropolitan population. We identified all deaths from CHD in residents of the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area who were 30 to 74 years old and classified the deaths according to whether they occurred in or out of the hospital. For 1985 and 1990, we obtained lists of patients in this age range who were discharged with a diagnosis of acute CHD from all area hospitals, and we selected the medical records of 50 percent of these patients for abstraction. Definite myocardial infarctions were identified with standardized diagnostic algorithm. The 1985 and 1990 cohorts of patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction were followed for at least three years to identify those who died from any cause. Trends in risk factors for CHD were investigated through surveys of 25-to-74-year-olds that were conducted in 1985 through 1987 and 1990 through 1992. Between 1985 and 1990, mortality from CHD fell by 25 percent for both men and women, and the decline in in-hospital mortality (41 percent) exceeded the decline in out-of-hospital mortality (17 percent) among men. The rates of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction declined slightly, by 5 to 10 percent, between 1985 and 1990. Survival among patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction increased substantially during that period. After adjustment for age and previous myocardial infarction, the relative risk of dying within three years of hospitalization for a myocardial infarction (for the 1990 cohort as compared with the 1985 cohort) was 0.76 for men (95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.89) and 0.84 for women (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.00). Substantial increases in the use of thrombolytic therapy, heparin, aspirin, and coronary angioplasty paralleled the survival trends. In general, the risk-factor profile of the area population with respect to CHD also improved considerably during that time. The recent decline in mortality due to CHD in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area can be explained by both the declining incidence of myocardial infarction in the population and the improved survival of patients with myocardial infarction.
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            One-Year Mortality after Acute Myocardial Infarction prior to and after the Implementation of a Widespread Use of Thrombolysis and Aspirin

            During 1 year of follow-up, we compared the mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) prior to and after the introduction of a more widespread use of thrombolytic agents and aspirin. Study period: Two periods (I = 1986–1987 and II = 1989–1990) were compared. Patients: All patients admitted to the coronary care units at the two city hospitals in the community of Göteborg who fulfilled the criteria for development of AMI participated in the evaluation. Results: The overall 1-year mortality rate was 24% during period I and 23% during period II (NS). However, among patients up to 70 years of age, the mortality was reduced from 15 to 11% (p < 0.05), whereas among patients aged over 70 years the mortality remained almost unchanged (34 vs. 35%; NS). Conclusion: The introduction of a more widespread use of thrombolytic agents and aspirin has not substantially changed the overall mortality in AMI. However, among younger patients, the mortality appears to have been reduced but not among the elderly.

              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              October 1999
              25 October 1999
              : 91
              : 4
              : 250-255
              aDivision of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Sahlgrenska and bDepartment of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Göteborg, Sweden
              6919 Cardiology 1999;91:250–255
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 22, Pages: 6
              Coronary Care


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