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      Chapter 6 Protein Sorting in the Secretory Pathway

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          This chapter focuses on protein sorting in the secretory pathway. From primary and secondary biosynthetic sites in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, proteins and lipids are distributed to more than 30 final destinations in membranes or membrane-bound spaces, where they carry out their programmed function. Molecular sorting is defined, in its most general sense, as the sum of the mechanisms that determine the distribution of a given molecule from its site of synthesis to its site of function in the cell. The final site of residence of a protein in a eukaryotic cell is determined by a combination of various factors, acting in concert: (1) site of synthesis, (2) sorting signals or zip codes, (3) signal recognition or decoding mechanisms, (4) cotranslational or posttranslational mechanisms for translocation across membranes, (5) specific fusion–fission interactions between intracellular vesicular compartments, and (6) restrictions to the lateral mobility in the plane of the bilayer. Improvements in cell fractionation, protein separation, and immune precipitation procedures in the past decade have made them possible. Very little is known about the mechanisms that mediate the localization and concentration of specific proteins and lipids within organelles. Various experimental model systems have become available for their study. The advent of recombinant DNA technology has shortened the time needed for obtaining the primary structure of proteins to a few months.

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          Structure of the haemagglutinin membrane glycoprotein of influenza virus at 3 A resolution.

          The haemagglutinin glycoprotein of influenza virus is a trimer comprising two structurally distinct regions: a triple-stranded coiled-coil of alpha-helices extends 76 A from the membrane and a globular region of antiparallel beta-sheet, which contains the receptor binding site and the variable antigenic determinants, is positioned on top of this stem. Each subunit has an unusual loop-like topology, starting at the membrane, extending 135 A distally and folding back to enter the membrane.
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            Purification of a membrane-associated protein complex required for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum.

             Ryan Walter,  G Blobel (1980)
            The capacity of microsomal membranes to translocate nascent presecretory proteins across their lipid bilayer can be largely abolished by extracting them with high ionic strength buffers. It can be reconstituted by adding the salt extract back to the depleted membranes [Warren, G. & Doberstein, B. (1978) Nature (London) 273, 569-571]. Utilizing hydrophobic chromatography, we purified to homogeneity a protein component of the salt extract that reconstitutes the translocation activity of the extracted membranes. This component behaves as a homogeneous species upon gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, adsorption chromatography, and sucrose-gradient centrifugation. When examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in NaDodSO4, six polypeptides with apparent Mr of 72,000, 68,000, 54,000, 19,000, 14,000, and 9000 are observed in about equal and constant stoichiometry, suggesting that they are subunits of a complex. The sedimentation coefficient of 11S is in good agreement with the sum of the Mr of the subunits. The Mr 68,000 and 9000 subunits label intensely with N-[3H]ethylmaleimide. Thus, the reported sulfhydryl group requirement of the translocation activity in the unfractionated extract [Jackson, R. C., Walter, P. & Blobel, G. (1980) Nature (London), 286, 174-176] may be localized to either or both the Mr 68,000 and 9000 subunits of the purified complex.
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              Transfer of proteins across membranes. I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of murine myeloma

              Fractionation of MOPC 41 DL-1 tumors revealed that the mRNA for the light chain of immunoglobulin is localized exclusively in membrane- bound ribosomes. It was shown that the translation product of isolated light chain mRNA in a heterologous protein-synthesizing system in vitro is larger than the authentic secreted light chain; this confirms similar results from several laboratories. The synthesis in vitro of a precursor protein of the light chain is not an artifact of translation in a heterologous system, because it was shown that detached polysomes, isolated from detergent-treated rough microsomes, not only contain nascent light chains which have already been proteolytically processed in vivo but also contain unprocessed nascent light chains. In vitro completion of these nascent light chains thus resulted in the synthesis of some chains having the same mol wt as the authentic secreted light chains, because of completion of in vivo proteolytically processed chains and of other chains which, due to the completion of unprocessed chains, have the same mol wt as the precursor of the light chain. In contrast, completion of the nascent light chains contained in rough microsomes resulted in the synthesis of only processed light chains. Taken together, these results indicate that the processing activity is present in isolated rough microsomes, that it is localized in the membrane moiety of rough microsomes, and, therefore, that it was most likely solubilized during detergent treatment used for the isolation of detached polysomes. Furthermore, these results established that processing in vivo takes place before completion of the nascent chain. The data also indicate that in vitro processing of nascent chains by rough microsomes is dependent on ribosome binding to the membrane. If the latter process is interfered with by aurintricarboxylic acid, rough microsomes also synthesize some unprocessed chains. The data presented in this paper have been interpreted in the light of a recently proposed hypothesis. This hypothesis, referred to as the signal hypothesis, is described in greater detail in the Discussion section.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Curr Top Membr Transp
                Curr Top Membr Transp
                Current Topics in Membranes and Transport
                Academic Press Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc.
                0070-2161
                0070-2161
                30 May 2008
                1985
                30 May 2008
                : 24
                : 251-294
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York
                []Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York
                Article
                S0070-2161(08)60328-7
                10.1016/S0070-2161(08)60328-7
                7146842
                © 1985 Academic Press Inc.

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