This is the first termite survey using standard protocols in the Abobral region of the Pantanal complex of South America. Abobral, which is primarily composed of four physiognomies: 1) campo, annually flooded grassland; 2) capão, which are islands of semi-deciduous forests; 3) carandazal, annually flooded vegetation composed of a native palm; and 4) paratudal, annually flooded savanna vegetation. Ten species of termites were sampled in the capões, three in the grasslands, two in the paratudal and no species in the carandazal. The diversity of termites in the Abobral Pantanal is concentrated in the capões, which stay above water level during the flood season. In the others physiognomies of the Abobral, the termite fauna is poor. The species composition of termites of the Abobral Pantanal seems to be more related to the Cerrado and Chaco faunas than to the Amazonia and Atlantic Forest faunas.