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      α 4β 1 integrin and erythropoietin mediate temporally distinct steps in erythropoiesis: integrins in red cell development

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          Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the terminal proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Fibronectin is an important part of the erythroid niche, but its precise role in erythropoiesis is unknown. By culturing fetal liver erythroid progenitors, we show that fibronectin and Epo regulate erythroid proliferation in temporally distinct steps: an early Epo-dependent phase is followed by a fibronectin-dependent phase. In each phase, Epo and fibronectin promote expansion by preventing apoptosis partly through bcl-xL. We show that α 4, α 5, and β 1 are the principal integrins expressed on erythroid progenitors; their down-regulation during erythropoiesis parallels the loss of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Culturing erythroid progenitors on recombinant fibronectin fragments revealed that only substrates that engage α 4β 1-integrin support normal proliferation. Collectively, these data suggest a two-phase model for growth factor and extracellular matrix regulation of erythropoiesis, with an early Epo-dependent, integrin-independent phase followed by an Epo-independent, α 4β 1-integrin–dependent phase.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Focal adhesion regulation of cell behavior.

          Focal adhesions lie at the convergence of integrin adhesion, signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. Cells modify focal adhesions in response to changes in the molecular composition, two-dimensional (2D) vs. three-dimensional (3D) structure, and physical forces present in their extracellular matrix environment. We consider here how cells use focal adhesions to regulate signaling complexes and integrin function. Furthermore, we examine how this regulation controls complex cellular behaviors in response to matrices of diverse physical and biochemical properties. One event regulated by the physical structure of the ECM is phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Y397, which couples FAK to several signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion.
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            Development of erythroid and myeloid progenitors in the yolk sac and embryo proper of the mouse.

            In this study, we have mapped the onset of hematopoietic development in the mouse embryo using colony-forming progenitor assays and PCR-based gene expression analysis. With this approach, we demonstrate that commitment of embryonic cells to hematopoietic fates begins in proximal regions of the egg cylinder at the mid-primitive streak stage (E7.0) with the simultaneous appearance of primitive erythroid and macrophage progenitors. Development of these progenitors was associated with the expression of SCL/tal-1 and GATA-1, genes known to be involved in the development and maturation of the hematopoietic system. Kinetic analysis revealed the transient nature of the primitive erythroid lineage, as progenitors increased in number in the developing yolk sac until early somite-pair stages of development (E8.25) and then declined sharply to undetectable levels by 20 somite pairs (E9.0). Primitive erythroid progenitors were not detected in any other tissue at any stage of embryonic development. The early wave of primitive erythropoiesis was followed by the appearance of definitive erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) that were first detectable at 1-7 somite pairs (E8.25) exclusively within the yolk sac. The appearance of BFU-E was followed by the development of later stage definitive erythroid (CFU-E), mast cell and bipotential granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the yolk sac. C-myb, a gene essential for definitive hematopoiesis, was expressed at low levels in the yolk sac just prior to and during the early development of these definitive erythroid progenitors. All hematopoietic activity was localized to the yolk sac until circulation was established (E8.5) at which time progenitors from all lineages were detected in the bloodstream and subsequently in the fetal liver following its development. This pattern of development suggests that definitive hematopoietic progenitors arise in the yolk sac, migrate through the bloodstream and seed the fetal liver to rapidly initiate the first phase of intraembryonic hematopoiesis. Together, these findings demonstrate that commitment to hematopoietic fates begins in early gastrulation, that the yolk sac is the only site of primitive erythropoiesis and that the yolk sac serves as the first source of definitive hematopoietic progenitors during embryonic development.
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              Ineffective erythropoiesis in Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) mice due to decreased survival of early erythroblasts.

              Erythropoietin (Epo) controls red cell production in the basal state and during stress. Epo binding to its receptor, EpoR, on erythroid progenitors leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor Stat5. Previously, fetal anemia and increased apoptosis of fetal liver erythroid progenitors were found in Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) mice. However, the role of Stat5 in adult erythropoiesis was not clear. The present study shows that some adult Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) mice have a near-normal hematocrit but are deficient in generating high erythropoietic rates in response to stress. Further, many adult Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) mice have persistent anemia despite a marked compensatory expansion in their erythropoietic tissue. Analysis of erythroblast maturation in Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) hematopoietic tissue shows a dramatic increase in early erythroblast numbers, but these fail to progress in differentiation. Decreased expression of bcl-x(L) and increased apoptosis in Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) early erythroblasts correlate with the degree of anemia. Hence, Stat5 controls a rate-determining step regulating early erythroblast survival.

                Author and article information

                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                4 June 2007
                : 177
                : 5
                : 871-880
                [1 ]Division of Biological Engineering, [2 ]Biotechnology Process Engineering Center, [3 ]Center for Cancer Research, [4 ]Department of Biology, and [5 ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
                [6 ]Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142
                Author notes

                Correspondence to Harvey F. Lodish: lodish@ 123456wi.mit.edu

                Copyright © 2007, The Rockefeller University Press
                Research Articles

                Cell biology


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