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      Seroprevalence and transmission of Hepatitis B virus among delivering women and their new born in selected health facilities, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Hepatitis B Virus is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2012 alone, over 350 million chronic carriers and 1. 2 million annual deaths were occurred. Hepatitis B Virus causes 60 to 80% of the world’s primary liver cancer and nearly 90% infants infected due to vertical transmission are at higher risk of developing chronic liver disease and cancer. Hence determining the burden of maternal and neonatal Hepatitis B Virus infection is a priority.

          Methods

          A cross sectional study was conducted from July – September 2012 at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College and Selam Health Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Blood samples from delivering mothers (n = 265) and their corresponding cords (n = 265) were collected. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen was detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Frequency analysis and logistic regression test was used to identify the potential risk factors associated with Hepatitis B Virus positivity using SPSS Version -15.

          Results

          A total of 265 delivering women with the mean age of 25.8 years were enrolled in the study. Of these delivering women, 8 (3.0%) of mothers were positive for Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen, whereas 6 (2.3%) of cord bloods were positives with 75% concordance rate of exposed infants with sero-positive mothers. However, only one maternal positive case was observed for Hepatitis B e Ag test. Only 11% of the mothers know their Hepatitis B Virus status. Of the total mothers assessed for possible risk factors, 69 (26%) had only one type, while 161 (60.8%) had multiple exposure factors such as ear pricing, history of tribal marks, abortion, multiple-sexual partner and history of surgical procedures experienced from high to low frequency. The remaining 35 (13.2%) of the participants had not experienced possible risk factors.

          Conclusion

          Though the maternal positivity rate was low, the rate of positivity in cord bloods was almost equal to those infected mothers. Therefore, screening of pregnant mothers and vaccination of infants could help to reduce the transmission. To minimize the higher overall risk exposure status of mothers, increasing awareness and intensive public health education is also recommended.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Natural history of hepatitis B virus infection: an update for clinicians.

          Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common viral pathogen that causes a substantial health burden worldwide. Significant progress has been made in the past few decades in understanding the natural history of HBV infection. A dynamic balance between viral replication and host immune response is pivotal to the pathogenesis of liver disease. In immunocompetent adults, most HBV infections spontaneously resolve, whereas in most neonates and infants they become chronic. Those with chronic HBV may present in 1 of 4 phases of infection: (1) in a state of immune tolerance, (2) with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)positive chronic hepatitis, (3) as an inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carrier, or (4) with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis. Of these, HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis may progress to cirrhosis and its long-term sequelae including hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several prognostic factors, such as serum HBV DNA concentrations, HBeAg status, serum aminotransferases, and certain HBV genotypes, have been identified to predict long-term outcome. These data emphasize the importance of monitoring all patients with chronic HBV infection to identify candidates for and select optimal timing of antiviral treatment, to recognize those at risk of complications, and to implement surveillance for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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            Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

            Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need to be screened for both HIV and HBV infections during antenatal care. Furthermore, health education about modes of transmission of HIV and HBV has to be given.
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              Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women

              Background The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no proper published data are available in Sudan. Aim The study aimed to investigate the sero-prevalance and the possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among antenatal care attendants in central Sudan. Methods During 3 months from March–June 2006, sera were collected from pregnant women at Umdurman Maternity Hospital in Sudan, and they were tested for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBVsAg) and HCV. Results HBVsAg was detected in 41 (5.6%) out 728 women, Anti-HCV was detected in 3 (0.6%) out of 423 women, all of them were not aware of their condition. Age, parity, gestational age, residence, history of blood transfusion, dental manipulations, tattooing and circumcision did not contribute significantly to increased HBVsAg sero-positivity. Conclusion Thus 5.6% of pregnant women were positive for HBVsAg irrespective of their age, parity and socio-demographic characteristics. There was low prevalence of Anti-HCV.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central
                1756-0500
                2014
                15 April 2014
                : 7
                : 239
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute (EHNRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Article
                1756-0500-7-239
                10.1186/1756-0500-7-239
                3991867
                24731794
                Copyright © 2014 Tegegne et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Medicine

                hepatitis b virus, seroprevalence, risk factor, delivering women, cord blood

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