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      Molecular mechanisms behind the biological effects of hesperidin and hesperetin for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

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          Abstract

          Hesperidin (Hsd) and its aglycone, hesperetin (Hst), are two flavonoids from citrus species that have various biological properties, particularly those for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown both anti-cancer and cancer chemopreventive effects for Hsd and Hst. Cancer chemopreventive properties of Hsd and Hst are mainly associated with their antioxidant, radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, Hsd and Hst interfere at different stages of cancer. Unlike conventional anti-cancer drugs, Hsd and Hst inhibit tumor growth by targeting multiple cellular protein targets at the same time, including caspases, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) and Bax (Bcl-2 associated X protein) for the induction of apoptosis, and COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2), MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and MMP-9 for the inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. The results of the recent basic and clinical studies revealed the beneficial effects for Hst, Hsd and their derivatives in the treatment of heart failure and cardiac remodeling, myocardial ischemia and infarction, and hypertension. In addition, the valuable effects of Hst and Hsd in the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia with their anti-platelet and anticoagulant effects make them good candidates in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In this review, new findings regarding the molecular targets of Hsd and Hst, animal studies and clinical trials are discussed.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Life Sci.
          Life sciences
          1879-0631
          0024-3205
          Mar 1 2015
          : 124
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
          [2 ] Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
          [3 ] Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of molecular sciences, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
          [4 ] Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of molecular sciences, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran.
          [5 ] Biotechnology Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: Iranshahim@mums.ac.ir.
          Article
          S0024-3205(15)00048-X
          10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.030
          25625242
          Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

          Anti-cancer, Anticoagulant, Flavonoid, Hesperetin

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