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      Circulating Concentrations of the Adipocyte Protein Adiponectin Are Decreased in Parallel With Reduced Insulin Sensitivity During the Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Rhesus Monkeys

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      Diabetes

      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein whose plasma concentrations are decreased in obese subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. This protein possesses putative antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we have analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and insulin resistance in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), which spontaneously develop obesity and which subsequently frequently progress to overt type 2 diabetes. The plasma levels of adiponectin were decreased in obese and diabetic monkeys as in humans. Prospective longitudinal studies revealed that the plasma levels of adiponectin declined at an early phase of obesity and remained decreased after the development of type 2 diabetes. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that the obese monkeys with lower plasma adiponectin showed significantly lower insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose uptake (M rate). The plasma levels of adiponectin were significantly correlated to M rate (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). Longitudinally, the plasma adiponectin decreased in parallel to the progression of insulin resistance. No clear association was found between the plasma levels of adiponectin and its mRNA levels in adipose tissue. These results suggest that reduction in circulating adiponectin may be related to the development of insulin resistance.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.

          Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.
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            A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes.

            We describe a novel 30-kDa secretory protein, Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa), that is made exclusively in adipocytes and whose mRNA is induced over 100-fold during adipocyte differentiation. Acrp30 is structurally similar to complement factor C1q and to a hibernation-specific protein isolated from the plasma of Siberian chipmunks; it forms large homo-oligomers that undergo a series of post-translational modifications. Like adipsin, secretion of Acrp30 is enhanced by insulin, and Acrp30 is an abundant serum protein. Acrp30 may be a factor that participates in the delicately balanced system of energy homeostasis involving food intake and carbohydrate and lipid catabolism. Our experiments also further corroborate the existence of an insulin-regulated secretory pathway in adipocytes.
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              cDNA cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen-like factor, apM1 (AdiPose Most abundant Gene transcript 1).

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes
                Diabetes
                American Diabetes Association
                0012-1797
                1939-327X
                May 01 2001
                May 01 2001
                : 50
                : 5
                : 1126-1133
                Article
                10.2337/diabetes.50.5.1126
                11334417
                © 2001

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