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      Thrombolytic treatment (alteplase; rt-Pa) in acute massive pulmonary embolism and cardiopulmonary arrest

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          Patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) often decompensate suddenly, and once hemodynamic compromise has developed, mortality is extremely high. Currently, thrombolytic therapy for PE is still controversial. We retrospectively evaluated 34 patients with PE between January 2010 and December 2013 in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey. The demographic and disease characteristics of patients who received thrombolytic treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The female to male ratio was 19/15 and the mean age was 63.1±13.2 years. PE diagnosis was made using echocardiography (64.7%) or contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography with echocardiography (32.4%). Twenty-two (64.7%) patients went into the cardiopulmonary arrest due to massive PE and 17 (50%) patients recovered without sequelae. Eleven (32.4%) patients were diagnosed with massive PE during cardiopulmonary arrest with clinical and echocardiographic findings. Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) was administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and four (36.3%) patients responded and survived without sequelae. The complications of rt-PA treatment were hemorrhage in five (14.7%) patients and allergic reactions in two (5.9%) patients. There was no mortality due to rt-PA treatment complications. In conclusion, mortality due to massive PE is much more than estimated and alteplase can be used safely in patients with massive PE. This thrombolytic treatment was not associated with any fatal hemorrhage complication. If there is any sign of acute PE, echocardiography should be used during cardiopulmonary arrest/instability. Alteplase should be given to patients with suspected massive PE.

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          Acute pulmonary embolism: clinical outcomes in the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER)

          Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains poorly understood. Rates of clinical outcomes such as death and recurrence vary widely among trials. We therefore established the International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry (ICOPER), with the aim of identifying factors associated with death. 2454 consecutive eligible patients with acute PE were registered from 52 hospitals in seven countries in Europe and North America. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 3 months. The prognostic effect of baseline factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses. 2110 (86.0%) patients had PE proven by necropsy, high-probability lung scan, pulmonary angiography, or venous ultrasonography plus high clinical suspicion; ICOPER accepted without independent review diagnoses and interpretation of imaging provided by participating centres; 3-month follow-up was completed in 98.0% of patients. The overall crude mortality rate at 3 months was 17.4% (426 of 2454 deaths, including 52 patients lost to follow-up): 179 of 397 (45.1%) deaths were ascribed to PE and 70 of 397 (17.6%) to cancer, and no information on the cause of death was available for 29 patients. After exclusion of 61 patients in whom PE was first discovered at necropsy, the mortality rate at 3 months was 15.3% (365 of 2393 deaths). On multiple-regression modelling, age over 70 years (hazard ratio 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.3]), cancer (2.3 [1.5-3.5]), congestive heart failure (2.4 [1.5-3.7]), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.8 [1.2-2.7]), systolic arterial hypotension (2.9 [1.7-5.0]), tachypnoea (2.0 [1.2-3.2]), and right-ventricular hypokinesis on echocardiography (2.0 [1.3-2.9]) were identified as significant prognostic factors. PE remains an important clinical problem with a high mortality rate. Data from ICOPER provide rates and highlight adverse prognostic categories that will help in planning of future trials of high-risk PE patients.
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            Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).

            This chapter about treatment for venous thromboembolic disease is part of the American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do or do not outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patient values may lead to different choices (for a full understanding of the grading, see "Grades of Recommendation" chapter). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: for patients with objectively confirmed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), we recommend anticoagulant therapy with subcutaneous (SC) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), monitored IV, or SC unfractionated heparin (UFH), unmonitored weight-based SC UFH, or SC fondaparinux (all Grade 1A). For patients with a high clinical suspicion of DVT or PE, we recommend treatment with anticoagulants while awaiting the outcome of diagnostic tests (Grade 1C). For patients with confirmed PE, we recommend early evaluation of the risks to benefits of thrombolytic therapy (Grade 1C); for those with hemodynamic compromise, we recommend short-course thrombolytic therapy (Grade 1B); and for those with nonmassive PE, we recommend against the use of thrombolytic therapy (Grade 1B). In acute DVT or PE, we recommend initial treatment with LMWH, UFH or fondaparinux for at least 5 days rather than a shorter period (Grade 1C); and initiation of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) together with LMWH, UFH, or fondaparinux on the first treatment day, and discontinuation of these heparin preparations when the international normalized ratio (INR) is > or = 2.0 for at least 24 h (Grade 1A). For patients with DVT or PE secondary to a transient (reversible) risk factor, we recommend treatment with a VKA for 3 months over treatment for shorter periods (Grade 1A). For patients with unprovoked DVT or PE, we recommend treatment with a VKA for at least 3 months (Grade 1A), and that all patients are then evaluated for the risks to benefits of indefinite therapy (Grade 1C). We recommend indefinite anticoagulant therapy for patients with a first unprovoked proximal DVT or PE and a low risk of bleeding when this is consistent with the patient's preference (Grade 1A), and for most patients with a second unprovoked DVT (Grade 1A). We recommend that the dose of VKA be adjusted to maintain a target INR of 2.5 (INR range, 2.0 to 3.0) for all treatment durations (Grade 1A). We recommend at least 3 months of treatment with LMWH for patients with VTE and cancer (Grade 1A), followed by treatment with LMWH or VKA as long as the cancer is active (Grade 1C). For prevention of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) after proximal DVT, we recommend use of an elastic compression stocking (Grade 1A). For DVT of the upper extremity, we recommend similar treatment as for DVT of the leg (Grade 1C). Selected patients with lower-extremity (Grade 2B) and upper-extremity (Grade 2C). DVT may be considered for thrombus removal, generally using catheter-based thrombolytic techniques. For extensive superficial vein thrombosis, we recommend treatment with prophylactic or intermediate doses of LMWH or intermediate doses of UFH for 4 weeks (Grade 1B).
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              Immediate coronary angiography in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

              The incidence of acute coronary-artery occlusion among patients with sudden cardiac arrest outside of the hospital is unknown, and the role of reperfusion therapy has not been determined. We therefore performed immediate coronary angiography and angioplasty when indicated in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Between September 1994 and August 1996, coronary angiography was performed in 84 consecutive patients between the ages of 30 and 75 years who had no obvious noncardiac cause of cardiac arrest. Sixty of the 84 patients had clinically significant coronary disease on angiography, 40 of whom had coronary-artery occlusion (48 percent). Angioplasty was attempted in 37 patients and was technically successful in 28. Clinical and electrocardiographic findings, such as the occurrence of chest pain and the presence of ST-segment elevation, were poor predictors of acute coronary-artery occlusion. The in-hospital survival rate was 38 percent. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis revealed that successful angioplasty was an independent predictor of survival (odds ratio, 5.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 24.5; P=0.04). Acute coronary-artery occlusion is frequent in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and is predicted poorly by clinical and electrocardiographic findings. Accurate diagnosis by immediate coronary angiography can be followed in suitable candidates by coronary angioplasty, which seems to improve survival.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                12 June 2014
                : 8
                : 759-763
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahçeşehir University, Istanbul, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Radiology, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey
                [5 ]Department of Intensive Care Unit, Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sevket Ozkaya, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahçeşehir University, Çırağan Caddesi Osmanpaşa Mektebi Sokak No: 4-6, 34353 Beşiktaş, Istanbul, Turkey, Mob +90 532 474 13 09, Email ozkayasevket@ 123456yahoo.com
                © 2014 Dirican et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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