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      The faster, the better? Relationships between run-up speed, the degree of difficulty (D-score), height and length of flight on vault in artistic gymnastics

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          Abstract

          On vault in artistic gymnastics, a high run-up speed is thought to be important when performing difficult vaults. To test this assumption in a large cohort of elite athletes, we calculated the correlations between the run-up speed, scores, height and length of flight for handspring-, Tsukahara- and Yurchenko-style vaults and compared the performances of male and female elite and junior athletes (n = 407) during the 2016 European Championships. In females, run-up speed correlated significantly with the difficulty (D-) score and height of flight for all vaulting styles (r ≤ 0.80). In males, run-up speed correlated significantly with the D-score, height and length of flight of Tsukahara (r ≤ 0.69) and Yurchenko vaults only (r ≤ 0.65). Males reached 8–9% higher run-up speeds performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults than did females, but similar run-up speeds performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite females achieved higher run-up speeds than junior females performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite males displayed higher run-up speeds than junior males performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults. We conclude that, in females, more difficult vaults require higher run-up speeds than vaults with lower D-scores and thus, within the measured range of speeds, the faster the run-up, the better, regardless of vaulting style. Males, on the other hand, may not need to exhaust their sprinting capacity, even for the most difficult vaults. Finally, the knowledge of the required run-up speed for each vault helps coaches to estimate each athlete’s potential and/or to focus the training on developing the required physical qualities.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Running Performance Differences between Men and Women

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            Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review.

            Biomechanical research into artistic gymnastics has grown substantially over the years. However, most research is still skill oriented with few tries at generalization. Consequently, our understanding of the principles and bases of the sport, although improved, is still marginal with gaps in knowledge about technique attributes throughout the sport. For that reason, this review begins with an attempt to identify important variables contributing to successful performance. The review is presented in clusters of work in similar apparatuses culminating in Tables offering an 'at a glance' summary of knowledge in each cluster. The last section of the review tries to give some direction to future biomechanical research in gymnastics in issues relating to data collection--two-dimensional or three-dimensional, image size, frame rate--and analysis, such as descriptive or explanatory, simulation and optimization, and statistical issues.
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              Women and men in sport performance: The gender gap has not evolved since 1983

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Project administrationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 March 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Swiss Federal Institute of Sport Magglingen (SFISM), Department of Elite Sports, Magglingen, Switzerland
                [2 ] University of Fribourg, Department of Medicine, Movement and Sport Science, Fribourg, Switzerland
                [3 ] Institute of Applied Training Science Leipzig (IAT), Department Strength and Technique, Leipzig, Germany
                University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-32299
                10.1371/journal.pone.0213310
                6405201
                30845256
                © 2019 Schärer et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Recreation
                Sports
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Recreation
                Sports
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Sports Science
                Sports
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Biological Locomotion
                Running
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Physiology
                Biological Locomotion
                Running
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Classical Mechanics
                Momentum
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Classical Mechanics
                Motion
                Inertia
                Moment of Inertia
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Arms
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                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Arms
                Hands
                Engineering and Technology
                Equipment
                Optical Equipment
                Cameras
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Legs
                Ankles
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Anatomy
                Musculoskeletal System
                Body Limbs
                Legs
                Ankles
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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