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      Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

      1 , 2 , 3 , 3

      Ecosphere

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 68

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          Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis

           J. Kruskal (1964)
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            Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world's large river systems.

            A global overview of dam-based impacts on large river systems shows that over half (172 out of 292) are affected by dams, including the eight most biogeographically diverse. Dam-impacted catchments experience higher irrigation pressure and about 25 times more economic activity per unit of water than do unaffected catchments. In view of projected changes in climate and water resource use, these findings can be used to identify ecological risks associated with further impacts on large river systems.
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              Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity.

              The flow regime is regarded by many aquatic ecologists to be the key driver of river and floodplain wetland ecosystems. We have focused this literature review around four key principles to highlight the important mechanisms that link hydrology and aquatic biodiversity and to illustrate the consequent impacts of altered flow regimes: Firstly, flow is a major determinant of physical habitat in streams, which in turn is a major determinant of biotic composition; Secondly, aquatic species have evolved life history strategies primarily in direct response to the natural flow regimes; Thirdly, maintenance of natural patterns of longitudinal and lateral connectivity is essential to the viability of populations of many riverine species; Finally, the invasion and success of exotic and introduced species in rivers is facilitated by the alteration of flow regimes. The impacts of flow change are manifest across broad taxonomic groups including riverine plants, invertebrates, and fish. Despite growing recognition of these relationships, ecologists still struggle to predict and quantify biotic responses to altered flow regimes. One obvious difficulty is the ability to distinguish the direct effects of modified flow regimes from impacts associated with land-use change that often accompanies water resource development. Currently, evidence about how rivers function in relation to flow regime and the flows that aquatic organisms need exists largely as a series of untested hypotheses. To overcome these problems, aquatic science needs to move quickly into a manipulative or experimental phase, preferably with the aims of restoration and measuring ecosystem response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ecosphere
                Ecosphere
                Wiley
                21508925
                December 2016
                December 2016
                December 27 2016
                : 7
                : 12
                : e01621
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Fort Collins Science Center; U.S. Geological Survey; 2150 Centre Avenue, Building C Fort Collins Colorado 80526 USA
                [2 ]Department of Biology; Colorado State University; Fort Collins Colorado 80523 USA
                [3 ]Department of Fish, Wildlife and Range Resources; University of Idaho; Moscow Idaho 83844 USA
                10.1002/ecs2.1621
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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