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Wasserspaltung mit Cobalt

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Angewandte Chemie

Wiley-Blackwell

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      Photoelectrochemical cells.

       M Grätzel (2001)
      Until now, photovoltaics--the conversion of sunlight to electrical power--has been dominated by solid-state junction devices, often made of silicon. But this dominance is now being challenged by the emergence of a new generation of photovoltaic cells, based, for example, on nanocrystalline materials and conducting polymer films. These offer the prospect of cheap fabrication together with other attractive features, such as flexibility. The phenomenal recent progress in fabricating and characterizing nanocrystalline materials has opened up whole new vistas of opportunity. Contrary to expectation, some of the new devices have strikingly high conversion efficiencies, which compete with those of conventional devices. Here I look into the historical background, and present status and development prospects for this new generation of photoelectrochemical cells.
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        In situ formation of an oxygen-evolving catalyst in neutral water containing phosphate and Co2+.

        The utilization of solar energy on a large scale requires its storage. In natural photosynthesis, energy from sunlight is used to rearrange the bonds of water to oxygen and hydrogen equivalents. The realization of artificial systems that perform "water splitting" requires catalysts that produce oxygen from water without the need for excessive driving potentials. Here we report such a catalyst that forms upon the oxidative polarization of an inert indium tin oxide electrode in phosphate-buffered water containing cobalt (II) ions. A variety of analytical techniques indicates the presence of phosphate in an approximate 1:2 ratio with cobalt in this material. The pH dependence of the catalytic activity also implicates the hydrogen phosphate ion as the proton acceptor in the oxygen-producing reaction. This catalyst not only forms in situ from earth-abundant materials but also operates in neutral water under ambient conditions.
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          Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å.

          Photosystem II is the site of photosynthetic water oxidation and contains 20 subunits with a total molecular mass of 350 kDa. The structure of photosystem II has been reported at resolutions from 3.8 to 2.9 Å. These resolutions have provided much information on the arrangement of protein subunits and cofactors but are insufficient to reveal the detailed structure of the catalytic centre of water splitting. Here we report the crystal structure of photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å. From our electron density map, we located all of the metal atoms of the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster, together with all of their ligands. We found that five oxygen atoms served as oxo bridges linking the five metal atoms, and that four water molecules were bound to the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster; some of them may therefore serve as substrates for dioxygen formation. We identified more than 1,300 water molecules in each photosystem II monomer. Some of them formed extensive hydrogen-bonding networks that may serve as channels for protons, water or oxygen molecules. The determination of the high-resolution structure of photosystem II will allow us to analyse and understand its functions in great detail. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Angewandte Chemie
            Angew. Chem.
            Wiley-Blackwell
            00448249
            August 01 2011
            August 01 2011
            : 123
            : 32
            : 7376-7405
            10.1002/ange.201007987
            © 2011

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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