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      Microfluidic Devices for Forensic DNA Analysis: A Review


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          Microfluidic devices may offer various advantages for forensic DNA analysis, such as reduced risk of contamination, shorter analysis time and direct application at the crime scene. Microfluidic chip technology has already proven to be functional and effective within medical applications, such as for point-of-care use. In the forensic field, one may expect microfluidic technology to become particularly relevant for the analysis of biological traces containing human DNA. This would require a number of consecutive steps, including sample work up, DNA amplification and detection, as well as secure storage of the sample. This article provides an extensive overview of microfluidic devices for cell lysis, DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and detection and analysis techniques for DNA. Topics to be discussed are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on-chip, digital PCR (dPCR), isothermal amplification on-chip, chip materials, integrated devices and commercially available techniques. A critical overview of the opportunities and challenges of the use of chips is discussed, and developments made in forensic DNA analysis over the past 10–20 years with microfluidic systems are described. Areas in which further research is needed are indicated in a future outlook.

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          Detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by turbidity derived from magnesium pyrophosphate formation.

          The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method that uses only one type of enzyme. One of the characteristics of the LAMP method is its ability to synthesize extremely large amount of DNA. Accordingly, a large amount of by-product, pyrophosphate ion, is produced, yielding white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate in the reaction mixture. Judging the presence or absence of this white precipitate allows easy distinction of whether nucleic acid was amplified by the LAMP method. Since an increase in the turbidity of the reaction mixture according to the production of precipitate correlates with the amount of DNA synthesized, real-time monitoring of the LAMP reaction was achieved by real-time measurement of turbidity. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Systems

            With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, and improve life qualities. NGS systems are typically represented by SOLiD/Ion Torrent PGM from Life Sciences, Genome Analyzer/HiSeq 2000/MiSeq from Illumina, and GS FLX Titanium/GS Junior from Roche. Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), which possesses the world's biggest sequencing capacity, has multiple NGS systems including 137 HiSeq 2000, 27 SOLiD, one Ion Torrent PGM, one MiSeq, and one 454 sequencer. We have accumulated extensive experience in sample handling, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In this paper, technologies of these systems are reviewed, and first-hand data from extensive experience is summarized and analyzed to discuss the advantages and specifics associated with each sequencing system. At last, applications of NGS are summarized.
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              Mutation detection and single-molecule counting using isothermal rolling-circle amplification.

              Rolling-circle amplification (RCA) driven by DNA polymerase can replicate circularized oligonucleotide probes with either linear or geometric kinetics under isothermal conditions. In the presence of two primers, one hybridizing to the + strand, and the other, to the - strand of DNA, a complex pattern of DNA strand displacement ensues that generates 10(9) or more copies of each circle in 90 minutes, enabling detection of point mutations in human genomic DNA. Using a single primer, RCA generates hundreds of tandemly linked copies of a covalently closed circle in a few minutes. If matrix-associated, the DNA product remains bound at the site of synthesis, where it may be tagged, condensed and imaged as a point light source. Linear oligonucleotide probes bound covalently on a glass surface can generate RCA signals, the colour of which indicates the allele status of the target, depending on the outcome of specific, target-directed ligation events. As RCA permits millions of individual probe molecules to be counted and sorted using colour codes, it is particularly amenable for the analysis of rare somatic mutations. RCA also shows promise for the detection of padlock probes bound to single-copy genes in cytological preparations.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Biosensors (Basel)
                Biosensors (Basel)
                05 August 2016
                September 2016
                : 6
                : 3
                : 41
                [1 ]Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands; r.m.tiggelaar@ 123456utwente.nl (R.T.); j.g.e.gardeniers@ 123456utwente.nl (H.G.)
                [2 ]Life Science, Engineering and Design, Saxion University of Applied Sciences, M. H. Tromplaan 28, Enschede 7513 AB, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Netherlands Forensic Institute, Laan van Ypenburg 6, The Hague 2497 GB, The Netherlands
                [4 ]Co van Ledden Hulsebosch Center, Amsterdam Center for Forensic Science and Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Science Park—Building 904, Amsterdam 1098 XH, The Netherlands; clhc-science@ 123456uva.nl
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: b.b.bruijns@ 123456utwente.nl ; Tel.: +31-53-489-3471
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 08 June 2016
                : 25 July 2016

                cell lysis,dna extraction and purification,pcr,isothermal amplification reactions,microfluidics,chips


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