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      Minor changes in fibre intake in the UK population between 2008/2009 and 2016/2017

      brief-report
      1 , 2 , , 1
      European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Risk factors, Biomarkers

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          Abstract

          The benefits of increasing populations’ and individuals’ fibre intake on non-communicable disease risk have been known and promoted for decades in the UK and in the world. Public health campaigns, including dietary recommendations, called populations to increase their consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, while manufacturers increased the fibre content of their products. In particular, the SACN report in 2015 highlighted the importance of fibres for the UK population. We analysed trends in fibre consumption for the whole population, by age group and gender using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey from 2008/09 to 2016/17. We investigated changes in total fibre intake and calculated the contribution to fibre intake and time trends from each food group. We compared the fibre content of food groups between 2008/09 and 2016/17. We found that fibre intake remained fairly stable. While the fibre content of some cereal-based products increased, it decreased for potato-based products. All age groups derived increasing fibre from pasta and other cereal-based products, and decreasing fibre from potato products. Adults, but not children or adolescents derived more fibre from vegetables. This resulted in an increase in fibre intake in adults, but not in children or adolescents.

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          Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

          Summary Background Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortality and morbidity. Methods By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burden attributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 years or older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factor on disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of disease-specific population attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome. Findings In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10–12) deaths and 255 million (234–274) DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1–5] deaths and 70 million [34–118] DALYs), low intake of whole grains (3 million [2–4] deaths and 82 million [59–109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits (2 million [1–4] deaths and 65 million [41–92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries, increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates. Interpretation This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will inform implementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact on human health annually. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

            Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.
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              Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

              Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG). This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973) and adults (n = 24,809). Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1) g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y) was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2) g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01) oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02) oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02) oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%), grain mixtures (16.3%), other foods (15.8%) and fruits (11.3%). For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%), other foods (14.3%), grain mixtures (12.0%) and fruits (11.1%). Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) (31%), yeast breads/rolls (21%) and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%). The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%), RTEC (23%) and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%). Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S.) population.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                m.gressier18@imperial.ac.uk
                Journal
                Eur J Clin Nutr
                Eur J Clin Nutr
                European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0954-3007
                1476-5640
                13 May 2021
                13 May 2021
                2022
                : 76
                : 2
                : 322-327
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.7445.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, Section for Nutrition Research, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Faculty of Medicine, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                [2 ]GRID grid.7445.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, Centre for Health Economics & Policy Innovation, Department of Economics & Public Policy, Imperial College Business School, , Imperial College London, ; London, UK
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0487-1589
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0529-6325
                Article
                933
                10.1038/s41430-021-00933-2
                8821000
                33986495
                39e4bee2-effd-4bab-a1cc-66967b5db8d7
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 18 November 2020
                : 15 April 2021
                : 21 April 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Societé des Produits Nestlé
                Categories
                Brief Communication
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Nature Limited 2022

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                risk factors,biomarkers
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                risk factors, biomarkers

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