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      D 2 Dopaminergic Receptors: Normal and Abnormal Transduction Mechanisms

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          Dopamine receptors of D<sub>2</sub> type present on lactotroph cells are coupled to a large series of transduction mechanisms. Beside their negative coupling with adenylate cyclase, they are also coupled with potassium and calcium channels, leading to a decreased intracellular calcium concentration. In addition, D<sub>2</sub> dopamine receptors also modulate phospholipase activities. Dopamine inhibits inositol phosphate production, through two distinct mechanisms. One of them could represent a direct negative coupling with phospholipase C. All these transduction mechanisms of the D<sub>2</sub> dopamine receptors implicate G proteins sensitive to pertussis toxin. In contrast, these receptors are negatively coupled to phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> through G proteins insensitive to this toxin. Both isoforms of the D<sub>2</sub> dopamine receptor, generated by alternate splicing of a single gene, are present in lactotroph cells. After transfection in CH<sub>4</sub>C<sub>1</sub> cells the two isoforms are coupled with adenylate cyclase while only the shortest isoform appears negatively coupled to phospholipase C. Functional D<sub>2</sub> dopamine receptors are present in human prolactinomas. Resistance to bromocriptine therapy is associated with a decreased density of these receptors in the tumor. In addition, the ratio of the two receptor isoforms (measured by PCR) is different in responsive and resistant tumors. Furthermore, the activity of Gi/Go proteins coupled to adenylate cyclase appears also affected in resistant tumors. Resistance to bromocriptine therapy appears thus to involve multiple changes at the different levels of the multiple mechanisms of action of dopamine on lactotroph cells.

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          Author and article information

          Horm Res Paediatr
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          03 December 2008
          : 38
          : 1-2
          : 78-83
          aU. 159 INSERM, Paris; bU. 297 INSERM, UER Médecine Nord, Marseille, France
          182494 Horm Res 1992;38:78–83
          © 1992 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Hormonal Resistance Syndromes


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