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Base-calling of automated sequencer traces using phred. II. Error probabilities.

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Genome research

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      Abstract

      Elimination of the data processing bottleneck in high-throughput sequencing will require both improved accuracy of data processing software and reliable measures of that accuracy. We have developed and implemented in our base-calling program phred the ability to estimate a probability of error for each base-call, as a function of certain parameters computed from the trace data. These error probabilities are shown here to be valid (correspond to actual error rates) and to have high power to discriminate correct base-calls from incorrect ones, for read data collected under several different chemistries and electrophoretic conditions. They play a critical role in our assembly program phrap and our finishing program consed.

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      Most cited references 5

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      Consed:A Graphical Tool for Sequence Finishing

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        DNA sequencing with dye-labeled terminators and T7 DNA polymerase: effect of dyes and dNTPs on incorporation of dye-terminators and probability analysis of termination fragments.

        The incorporation of fluorescently labeled dideoxynucleotides by T7 DNA polymerase is optimized by the use of Mn2+, fluorescein analogs and four 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphates) (dNTP alpha S's). The one-tube extension protocol was tested on single-stranded templates, as well as PCR fragments which were made single-stranded by digestion with T7 gene 6 exonuclease. Dye primer sequencing using four dNTP alpha S's was shown to give uniform termination patterns which were comparable to four dNTPs. Efficiency of the polymerase also appeared to improve with the dNTP alpha S's. A mathematical model was developed to predict the pattern of termination based on enzyme activity and ratios of ddNTP/dNTPs. This method can be used to optimize sequencing reactions and to estimate enzyme discrimination constants of chain terminators.
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          Assignment of position-specific error probability to primary DNA sequence data.

          DNA sequence predicted from polyacrylamide gel-based technologies is inaccurate because of variations in the quality of the primary data due to limitations of the technology, and to sequence-specific variations due to nucleotide interactions within the DNA molecule and with the gel. The ability to recognize the probability of error in the primary data will be useful in reconstructing the target sequence of a DNA sequencing project, and in estimating the accuracy of the final sequence. This paper describes the use of linear discriminant analysis to assign position-specific probabilities of incorrect, over- and under-prediction of nucleotides for each predicted nucleotide position in primary sequence data generated by a gel-based DNA sequencing technology. Using this method, most of the error potential in primary sequence data can be assigned to a limited number of discrete positions. The use of probability values in the sequence reconstruction process, and in estimating the accuracy of consensus sequence determination is described.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7730, USA.
            Journal
            Genome Res.
            Genome research
            1088-9051
            1088-9051
            Mar 1998
            : 8
            : 3
            9521922

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