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Autism and offending behaviour: needs and services

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      Abstract

      PurposeAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) brings out the limitations of the Criminal Justice Service. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the salient issues and their remedies.Design/methodology/approachA narrative review based on the literature and the clinical experience of the authors.FindingsASD’s hidden disabilities, even without the frequent coexistence of other disorder, derail the standard responses to offending.Practical implicationsManagement of these individuals as offenders depends on awareness of the issues, adaptation and the input of a variety of other services, especially health, social care and employment.Originality/valueAlthough this is a very active field of work, there is relatively little written about it.

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      Most cited references 29

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      The health status of adults on the autism spectrum.

      Compared to the general pediatric population, children with autism have higher rates of co-occurring medical and psychiatric illnesses, yet very little is known about the general health status of adults with autism. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of psychiatric and medical conditions among a large, diverse, insured population of adults with autism in the United States. Participants were adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California enrolled from 2008 to 2012. Autism spectrum disorder cases (N = 1507) were adults with autism spectrum disorder diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modification codes 299.0, 299.8, 299.9) recorded in medical records on at least two separate occasions. Controls (N = 15,070) were adults without any autism spectrum disorder diagnoses sampled at a 10:1 ratio and frequency matched to cases on sex and age. Adults with autism had significantly increased rates of all major psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and suicide attempts. Nearly all medical conditions were significantly more common in adults with autism, including immune conditions, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, seizure, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Rarer conditions, such as stroke and Parkinson's disease, were also significantly more common among adults with autism. Future research is needed to understand the social, healthcare access, and biological factors underlying these observations.
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        A systematic review of people with autism spectrum disorder and the criminal justice system.

        This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In addition, types of offences in people with ASD, co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses, and characteristics of people with ASD who commit offences (including predisposing factors) are considered. A combination of search terms was used in a variety of databases in order to find all of the available literature on this topic, and research studies were included based on specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. It was found that whilst there is an emerging literature base on this topic, there are a wide variety of methodologies used, making direct comparison difficult. Nevertheless it can be concluded so far that people with ASD do not seem to be disproportionately over-represented in the CJS, though they commit a range of crimes and seem to have a number of predisposing features. There is poor evidence of the presence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses (except in mental health settings) amongst offenders with ASD, and little evidence of the oft-asserted over-representation of certain kinds of crimes. It is recommended that further research of good quality is required in this area, rather than studies that examine populations that are not representative of all those with ASD.
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          High functioning autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of psychological vulnerabilities during interrogative interview

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Autism Secure Services, Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys, NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough, UK
            Developmental Psychiatrist based in Sunderland, UK
            Author notes
            Thomas Berney can be contacted at: t.p.berney@ncl.ac.uk
            Journal
            AIA
            10.1108/AIA
            Advances in Autism
            AIA
            Emerald Publishing
            2056-3868
            03 October 2016
            : 2
            Issue : 4 Issue title : Autism and offending behaviour Issue title : Autism and offending behaviour
            : 172-178
            586486
            10.1108/AIA-06-2016-0016
            AIA-06-2016-0016.pdf AIA-06-2016-0016
            © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
            Counts
            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 7, Words: 3798
            Product
            Categories
            review-article, General review
            cat-HSC, Health & social care
            cat-LID, Learning & intellectual disabilities
            Custom metadata
            yes
            yes
            JOURNAL
            included

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